Employees’ Emotions, Attitudes, and Behavior


Employees who know how to regulate their emotions are less prone to be grumpy or respond in an unproductive manner in the workplace. Workers who let rage and terror take over are unable to think carefully or even concentrate on one topic at a time, losing time and productivity. No matter if one is a doctor, lawyer, or unskilled worker, they will at some point experience dissatisfaction (McShane, 2018).

Every workplace would be a mess without emotional intelligence. Most individuals depend on emotional intelligence to engage with others and cope with circumstances, especially in the workplace, without even recognizing it. People with high emotional intelligence have stronger social interactions with others, including management, coworkers, and clients, leading to higher performance and job satisfaction regardless of employment level. Understanding what everyone else is going through, why they act the way they do, and how emotions influence thinking and judgment makes it easier to cope with difficult situations and resolve disagreements.

Mars Model of Individual Behavior

The MARS model of human behavior aims to elaborate on human behavior as a function of intrinsic and extrinsic factors. MARS stands for Motivation, Ability, Role Perception, and Situational Factors (McShane, 2018). These are the four main determinants of individual behavior and consequences. This model also confirms that these four variables influence individual performance. If any factor diminishes, performance suffers, and so does production. For example, motivated salespeople with sufficient resources will not work successfully if they lack expertise and sales skills. Similarly, employees with sufficient motivation, ability, and environmental conditions will not be outstanding performers if their job conceptions are incorrect.

The MARS Model successfully evaluates the causes behind the sorts of behaviors and performances demonstrated by individuals anchored in the four primary predicting elements. This model also demonstrates how each of these elements is critical in influencing motivation and attitudes and how their absence can cripple performance even when other factors are present.

Five-Factor Model of Personality

The five-factor model of personality (the Big Five) encompasses agreeableness, neuroticism (also referred to as emotional stability), extraversion, openness to experience (sometimes recognized as intellect), and conscientiousness. Very extraverted people are forceful and gregarious, not reserved (McShane, 2018). Agreeable people are cooperative and friendly, not hostile and nasty. Conscientious people are task-oriented and structured, not distracted and disorderly. Instead of being emotionally robust, neurotics are prone to unpleasant feelings like worry, despair, and annoyance. Individuals with high openness have a broad scope of interests, are sensitive to art and aesthetic beauty, and prefer surprise over predictability.

The five-factor theory was established to reflect as much personality variety as achievable using only a few characteristic variables. It is widely accepted that many different personality characteristic models may be conceived in relation to the five frameworks of personality characteristics. Personal attributes are permanent patterns of thinking, feelings, and actions.

Self-Concept Characteristics

Self-concept is a highly complicated, structured, and dynamic process of ideas, attitudes, and views about one’s identity. Self-concepts are belief frameworks about a person that include qualities, social roles, and ambitions. The surroundings, as well as the persons with whom one works, shape one’s self-concept (McShane, 2018). Professional and work experiences also shape people’s self-concept. Organizational self-concept influences social work behaviors, managerial role-sets, career satisfaction, and accomplishment.

Managers who think positively about themselves are better able to generate meaningful and productive self-concept in their personnel. Building workers’ self-concept is one technique to attract and keep them. Therefore, a positive self-concept contributes to organizational performance, health, and success. Employees should be assigned duties that promote a good self-concept. Workers can succeed if the assignment or training is organized to meet their mental and physical abilities.

Perception Process and Its Pros and Cons

Negotiations, interpretation, assortment, and organization are the four processes of perception. It is the practice of making meaning of the surroundings to respond appropriately. Perception creates a unique portrayal of the world, impacted by the perceiver’s needs, wants, values, and temperament (McShane, 2018). As a result, every person views the world and addresses life situations differently. The perception process channels employees’ energy towards the organization’s aims and objectives, strengthening the link between performance and anticipation of a satisfying outcome. Employees may be more committed to company goals if they have a feeling of ownership or property rights. One of the perception problems is that if the companies are regarded as unfair, the rewards might reduce employee morale and performance (Darvishmotevali et al., 2018). Personnel commitment, job happiness, management trust, and performance can all be negatively impacted by procedural unfairness views.

Circumplex Model of Emotions

People struggle to analyze, distinguish, and describe their feelings. This issue shows that people do not perceive or understand emotions as distinct feelings but rather as confused, overlapping sensations. Emotions, like the color spectrum, lack distinct bounds that would easily distinguish one feeling from another. It posits that sentiments are dispersed in a two-dimensional spherical space, including stimulation and valence components. Circumplex designs have been utilized to assess emotional words, facial gestures, and moods (McShane, 2018).

On the circumplex, different archetypal emotional events can be charted as per their degree of stimulation and pleasure. The circumplex model assumes that a reasonably smooth circular arrangement, or circumplex, offers an efficient explanation of the interactions among features and emotions. The circumplex paradigm provides for a larger perspective of personality and the emotional development that shapes it.

Definition and Relationship of Emotions, Attitudes, and Behavior

As mental states that develop without conscious effort, emotions are mainly characterized by physiological responses. They inspire emotions like joy, grief, and fury. Attitudes are how individuals react to their surroundings and events, either favorably or adversely, whereas behavior is how people respond to situations or stimuli (Ahad et al., 2021). Emotions influence a person’s opinion of a job, organization, or team. The work environment is affected. Workplace incidents produce various emotions in different people (McShane, 2018). These feelings motivate events that facilitate or hinder success at work. Negative emotions in the workplace can result in frustration and exhaustion. Frustration and fatigue can cause depression, anxiety, hostility, physical sickness, increased alcohol and substance abuse, and sleeplessness, with frustration being more active than burnout. Both circumstances can harm employees, customers, and clients since anger is conveyed in social interactions.

Definition and Discussion of Emotional Intelligence

Emotional intelligence is the capacity to recognize, comprehend, and control one’s own and other’s emotions in a social environment. Emotional intelligence is centered on self-discipline and empathy. Organizational loyalty is influenced by emotional intelligence. Employees with high emotional intelligence are focused on the firm and will do everything possible to help it succeed (McShane, 2018).

Emotional intelligence has also been linked to workplace happiness. An employee who interacts well with others, from management to consumers, is more inclined to love the job and remain fulfilled. Employees can increase their work performance by using their mental capability instead of being swayed by their interpersonal closeness. Emotional intelligence assists workers in avoiding non-productive behavior by anticipating how others will respond to a problem and trying to discover better ways to handle it. Emotionally intelligent workers avoid upsetting others, such as clients, coworkers, or management, and have superior impulse control, in addition to avoiding interruptions that may impede their daily goals.

Maslow’s Needs Theory

Abraham Maslow, a psychologist, stated that all individuals aspire to meet five levels of needs that include physiological, safety, belongingness, esteem, and self-actualization. Physiological and safety demands are at the base of Maslow’s needs hierarchy (McShane, 2018). Unmet needs at the bottom of the hierarchy drive behavior. If this threshold is met, the following level’s demands will begin to drive behavior. To achieve organizational success, individuals must grow. Supervisors should discover employee needs and promote job happiness. Employees who achieve self-actualization facilitate company success.

Work-life balance is achieved by cross-training, workplace enrichment, and special tasks. Empowering employees to take part in operational decisions also meets their esteem requirements. A relevant job title, business cards, employment benefits, awards, a pleasant office, and working space are vital to an employee’s self-esteem. Self-actualization motivates employees to grow and develop personally. Employees at this stage may seek a demanding career, an opportunity to improve their education, and additional autonomy in reaching company goals. Executives at this level provide an atmosphere where employees may satisfy their own self-actualization requirements.

Discussion and Conclusion

Employees who can regulate their emotions are less likely to be cranky or respond in an unproductive manner. No matter if one is a nurse, lawyer, or doctor, they will sometimes experience dissatisfaction. Understanding what other people are experiencing, why they act the way they do, and how feelings impact reasoning and thoughts make it easier to cope with challenging relationships and disputes, and this is what makes successful leaders distinct. Personality characteristics are permanent patterns of thinking, feelings, and accomplishments. As a result, every person views the world and addresses life situations differently.

An employee who interacts well with others, from management to consumers, has a high likelihood of treasuring the job and staying fulfilled. To achieve organizational success, individuals must develop. Supervisors should discover employee needs and promote job happiness. Employees who achieve self-actualization contribute to organizational success.


Ahad, R., Mustafa, M. Z., Mohamad, S., Abdullah, N. H. S., & Nordin, M. N. (2021). Work attitude, organizational commitment and emotional intelligence of Malaysian vocational college teachers. Journal of Technical Education and Training, 13(1), 15-21. Web.

Darvishmotevali, M., Altinay, L., & De Vita, G. (2018). Emotional intelligence and creative performance: Looking through the lens of environmental uncertainty and cultural intelligence. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 73, 44-54. Web.

McShane, S. (2018). M: Organizational behavior (4th ed.). McGraw-Hill Education.

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BusinessEssay. "Employees' Emotions, Attitudes, and Behavior." January 7, 2023. https://business-essay.com/employees-emotions-attitudes-and-behavior/.