The final project report focuses on the business analysis of six aspects of Cookie Business. It is a company that specializes in the production and sale of chocolate chips, sugar, and specialty, which had contribution margins per unit of 0.79, 0.69, and 3.23, respectively. The weighted average contribution margin of the product’s sales is 1.018. While specialty has the highest contribution margin of 3.23, chocolate chip is the most profitable cookie variety. Full cost apportions all costs to production units on costing, but variable costing distinguishes variable cost from fixed cost. Determination of profitability of special orders made to Cookie Business relies on variable costing. Internal rate of return is applied in the analysis to evaluate the viability of purchasing new equipment besides the ethical concerns associated with the transaction. Cash budget and material and labor valiance are also applied in the study of Cookie Business operations.
Cookie business analysis forms the basis for the final project report. The company specializes in producing three products: Chocolate Chip, Sugar, and Specialty. The paper discusses the following six areas concerning Cookie Business: contribution margin and break-even point, full and variable costing, special order, internal rate of return, cash budget, and material and labor variance. Each aspect is analyzed and appraised to determine the position of the Cookie business. It will be easy to evaluate the profitability, operational, and budgeting efficiency of Cookie Business.
|Sales||$ 1,875,000.00||$ 882,000.00||$ 1,050,000.00||$ 3,807,000.00|
|Less: Variable Costs||$ 690,000.00||$ 205,800.00||$ 81,000.00||$ 976,800.00|
|Contribution Margin||$ 1,185,000.00||$ 676,200.00||$ 969,000.00||$ 2,830,200.00|
|Less: Common Fixed Costs||$ 125,000.00|
|Per item Contribution Margin||0.79||0.69||3.23|
|Weighted Average Contribution Margin||1.018|
|Break-even point in units||122,783|
Chocolate chip, sugar, and specialty have $1,185,000.00, $676,200.00, and $969,000.00 contribution margins respectively as shown in the table above. Contribution margins per unit for chocolate chip, sugar, and specialty products are 0.79, 0.69, and 3.23, respectively. The weighted average contribution margin for the three products is 1.018. Therefore, given the common fixed cost of $ 125,000.00, the break-even point in units is 122,783. Chocolate chip is the most profitable cookie variety, but specialty has the highest contribution margin (3.23).
Full and Variable Costing
|Direct material||$ 0.60|
|Direct labor||$ 1.00|
|Variable manufacturing overhead||$ 0.40|
|Total variable manufacturing costs per unit||$ 2.00|
|Fixed manufacturing overhead per year||$ 139,000.00|
|In addition, the company has fixed selling and administrative costs:|
|Fixed selling costs per year||$ 50,000.00|
|Fixed administrative costs per year||$ 65,000.00|
|Selling price per cookie||$ 3.75|
|Number of cookies produced||2,780,000|
|Number of cookies sold||2,600,000|
|Full (absorption) costing :|
|Full cost per unit||$ 2.09|
|Ending Inventory Full (absorption) costing||$ 5,814,000|
|Variable costing :|
|Variable cost per unit||$ 2.00|
|Ending Inventory Variable costing||$ 5,560,000|
The Cookie Business total variable manufacturing costs per unit is the summation of the direct material, direct labor, and variable manufacturing cost, which is $ 2.00. On the other hand, full cost per unit is the summation of the total variable manufacturing costs per unit and all other fixed costs per unit, which is $ 2.09. Consequently, the ending inventory full (absorption) costing is $ 5,814,000. As per Cafferky & Wentworth (2014, p12), the ending inventory variable cost becomes $ 5,560,000. Variable costing is the most helpful method to managers because its extra or special-order units do not require fixed overhead cost apportionment.
|Number of cookies needed||1,000|
|Discounted price per cookie||$ 2.75|
|Normal price per cookie||$ 3.75|
|Cost of the special printed design per cookie||$ 0.50|
|Cost of tool needed to make the design||$ 100.00|
|Revenue for special order||$ 2,750|
|Costs for special order:|
|Design cost||$ 500|
|Tool cost||$ 100|
|Net increase (decrease) in profit||$ (600)|
The special order to the Cookie business requires an extra 1,000 units of cookies. The seller is ready to discount the price by $ 1.00 per unit and sell it at $ 2.75. However, the order comes with extra costs of printed design on the cookie, which costs the company $ 600. The revenue generated from the special-order quantity is $2,750. The business makes a net profit of $ 150 from the special order after deducting variables and additional costs on profit. Thus, it is prudent and economically viable for the company to accept the special order.
Internal Rate of Return
|As the owner of the Cookie Business, you are considering the following investment:|
|Purchase of new equipment||$ 250,000.00|
|Expected annual increase in sales||$ 48,017.50|
|Acceptable rate needed||9%|
|Calculate the Internal Rate of Return:|
|PV of annuity factor||5.0330|
|Internal rate of return||8%|
|Accept or reject||Reject|
The internal rate of return is 8%, and the acceptable rate needed is 9%. Therefore, accepting the purchase of the new equipment will lead to losses for the business. According to Brincks et al. (2020, p114), there will be a conflict of interest in the transaction due to the partner’s brother’s concern to supply the new equipment. It is ethically unacceptable for the enterprise owner to trade with its family members.
|The budgeted credit sales are as follows:|
|December last year||$ 250,000|
|Month of the sale||80%|
|Month following the sale||20%|
|Estimated cash receipts|
|Last month’s sales||$ 50,000||$ 25,000||$ 60,000|
|Current month’s sales||$ 100,000||$ 240,000||$ 72,000|
|Total||$ 150,000||$ 265,000||$ 132,000|
The Cookie Company collects 80% of the current month’s sales and 20% in the subsequent month. The collection strategy has made it possible for the management to meet its operations costs for January and February. Though the collection for March cannot meet the expected monthly expenses because it is less by $ 18, February had an excess of $ 115 that was carried forward. The surplus in February is used to offset the deficit in March and other subsequent periods. The collection strategy is favorable since total sales collection would lead to a more significant deficit of $ 60,000 in March.
Material and Labor Variance
|Actual Cost of Direct Materials||$ 225,000|
|Standard Cost of Direct Materials||$ 224,800|
|Actual Materials Used||30|
|Standard Materials Used||31|
|Actual Direct Labor Rate||$ 15.50|
|Standard Labor Rate||$ 15.00|
|Actual Hours Worked||45|
|Standard Hours Worked||40|
|Calculate Materials Variances:|
|Materials Price Variance||$ (200)||Unfavorable|
|Materials Quantity Variance||1||Favorable|
|Calculate Labor Variances:|
|Labor Rate Variance||$ (1)||Unfavorable|
|Labor Efficiency Variance||(5)||Unfavorable|
The table above shows material and labor variances, and comments are attached on their favorability. According to Dutta et al. (2010, p50), when material price variance, labor rate variance, and labor efficiency variance are negative, implying they are unfavorable, as in the case with Cookie. Only material quantity variance is favorable because its product is positive. The Cookie business should plan and budget well on material price, labor rate, and efficiency to avoid the adverse variance. Resources are always limited. Thus, meeting unforeseen expenses might be difficult without an adequate budget.
Conclusions and Recommendations
According to the profit/loss statement analysis, the cookie business is a very profitable enterprise to its shareholders, according to the profit/loss statement analysis. It made a profit of $ 2,705,200.00, and the break-even point is as low as 122.783 units against the annual production of 2,780,000 pieces. While the chocolate chip is the most profitable cookie, the specialty has the highest contribution margin of 3.23. The Cookie business’s variable unit cost of production is $ 2, while the full cost per unit is $ 2.09. However, variable costing is helpful to managers in determining units of production, contribution margin ratio, and break-even point. Variable costing helps managers determine the profitability of special orders. The Cookie business should accept the special order of 1000 units with a discount price of $ 2.75 since it will earn a profit of $ 150. The collection strategy of Cookie Business is appropriate because it cuts expense deficits, for example, in March. Lastly, the business ought to improve planning and budgeting to avoid adverse variances.
Brincks, S., Haddad, K. M., Lotfaliei, B., & Trombley, T. E. (2020). A synthesis of capital budgeting techniques around the world: 1990-2018. Quarterly Journal of Finance & Accounting, 58(4).
Cafferky M. K., & Wentworth, J. (2014). Breakeven analysis: the definitive guide to cost-volume-profit analysis (2nd ed.). Business Expert Press.
Dutta, S. K., Lawson, R. A., & Marcinko, D. J. (2010). A system of cost variances to evaluate sustainability efforts. Journal of Corporate Accounting & Finance, 21(3), 47-52.