Work refers to the mental effort and physical effort in producing or accomplishing something. Also, it is an occupation that people do to sustain their needs (International Labour Organization, 2020). Folks work for many reasons, majorly to get money, while others do not work at all. Others work so that they attain financial independence. Also, work gives one the courage to learn new skills and make new friends, as mechanism for career growth and development. However, it is important to note that organizations need versatile and dedicated employees to carry out tasks and work efficiently to enhance their productivity and sustainability within an industry.
All Work is Not Paid
Even though not all work is paid, energy and time are dedicated to tackling the job duties assigned when someone is working. For instance, working forty hours has a standard pay rate for every employee (International Labour Organization, 2020). A job, therefore, refers to the exchange of compensation for the time at work. Today, the world has instituted labor laws that ensure that employees are timely compensated for work done. However, there are circumstances where this is not applicable (International Labour Organization, 2020).
For instance, a volunteer or someone works for the community. The two individuals work together to contribute and be part of the community. Therefore, this means that the job benefits the community more than the person working both now and in the future. The most common form of work is wage labor which is also referred to as a full-time job. The job type entails the freedom of workers to sell their labor to obtain an intermediate time, such as an entire work career or few years.
For money or wages, employees also build an indeterminate time a continuous relationship with the employer. Today, various forms of wage labor are traded for exchange (International Labour Organization, 2020). The exempt employees have the right to network for hours without compensation from their employers. However, in cases of volunteers, one can voluntarily stay longer at work to finish the set objective of the day. Therefore, it doesn’t matter when the employees are willing to work for longer hours since they are legally compensated.
Work as a Productive Activity
Being productive during work is another factor of consideration when working in any organization. However, not all work is productive. Productivity implies gaining freedom from doing nothing when off duty (International Labour Organization, 2020). Moreover, this implies that one should have regular breaks to ensure that they remain productive throughout the day. Unproductivity majorly occurs when one concentrates a lot on the work and becomes counterproductive. Breaks, therefore, help in boosting the productivity of a person.
Services versus Manufacturing Employment
With the increased globalization, which has resulted in rapid growth in many countries, there is a debate on which sector of the economy is the main source of growth that could be the primary source of growth for developing countries. Most countries are globalized as a result of manufacturing activities. Also, information technology and outsourcing enable companies to overcome the tradable constraint activities in the manufacturing sector. For many manufacturing companies, the main advantages include scale economies possibilities (Warde, 1990). On the other hand, conventional wisdom service employment is less preferred and contributes less to the economy for future growth of the manufacturing sector.
The Gender Division of Labour at Work
Gender division of labor and gender inequality depends upon the cultural beliefs, the value of gender differences in traits and competencies, and characters. The beliefs taken for granted allow actors to be categorized as women and men in diverse contexts and understand the different societal rules. According to the actual interactions, there are behavioral differences between women and men of equal power and status. The small group interactions in which the gender differences appear are constructed through status relations and power and mark the socio-emotional realm. Research on gender has also focused on cultural beliefs regarding gender and other roles that confirm the beliefs. Other approaches investigated the various ways that may perpetuate gender inequality and social change in the future.
Importance of a job to the Welfare of People
Jobs have been a significant priority policy in most countries and governments. In most countries, jobs created are close to 1 million yearly in cases of positive outcomes. On the other hand, the businesses employ between 10-20 million persons working with more focus directed to the private sector (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, 2020). In market-based economies, challenges are experienced in paid employment to both the market-based economy; paid employment is critical to both a flourishing society and economy. As long as wages are sufficient, work offers individuals and families the means to purchase goods, flourishing economy, and society.
The existence of paid work also gives personal growth and contributes to the employee’s good. However, despite the millions of jobs created, there are high unemployment rates experienced in various parts of the world (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, 2020). Alongside the reality of a person battling various social issues such as the high cost of living and anxiety of insecurity in employment, it is sad to note that many people are struggling with securing a decent job for a decent standard of living and their families. Therefore, the creation of enough jobs enables everyone who desires and is willing to work to do so. Further, this requires the government to reexamine its principles in national employment.
The Leading Edges of Change into the Future
Technology in most workplaces has enabled companies to shift from the analog or outdated to the digital world. With the benefits of technological advancements appealing to management and employees, technology has become a vital component for companies to stay competitive. For instance, companies have recorded deduction in occupancy costs due to the active cultivation of digital workplaces (Stilwell, 2012). A digital workplace generally comprises a connected workplace that enables an excellent and collaborative environment for employees to work online.
The previous year’s technology has continued to evolve rapidly and become essential in business running in every industry (Stilwell, 2012). Some of the significant benefits of technological use include breaking information and creating a portal essential for communication. Also, it has increased operational efficiency and kept the company culture relevant, allowing connections within the organization. New technology also provides opportunities for production organizations. For instance, computer-aided networks such as the robots used alongside computers also enable people to work from home, which is a real possibility for many workers.
The Impact of Artificial Intelligence (AI)
Artificial Intelligence has improved efficiencies in workplaces through the ability to augment the regular duties of humans. The AI has helped handle dangerous and repetitive tasks that assist the human workforce in doing work that they are better equipped for, such as creativity and empathy (Stilwell, 2012). In doing so, AI has increased happiness in people and job satisfaction among humans. With the betterment in monitoring artificial intelligence capabilities, it has equally improved the healthcare of humans; further, t reduces the costs and helps in saving money.
The Future of Technological Advancements Predictions
AI will help hospitals in improving healthcare and medical operations in health facilities. With the possibility of large amounts of data involved in hospitals, AI will highly contribute towards better access of information to patients and the provision of personalized drug protocol and care plans. Further, the AI will enable society to gain countless loss hours in traffic congestion reduction through autonomous (Stilwell, 2012). Therefore this will relieve people from stressful commutes to work. Finally, it will help in uncovering criminal activities at the work pace (Stilwell, 2012). Technology such as facial detection and fingerprint scanners are other ways technology efficiency is important without interfering with a person’s privacy.
Alternatives to Ensure Welfare in a World Where There Is Less Work
First and foremost, the organization should consider using technology to ease humans’ work; this implies that the machines will perform duties that are meant for humans. Technological use in workplaces should also encourage persons with various forms of disability and work effectively (Pietrykowski, 2019). The implementation of the national policy choice also assists in ensuring the n welfare across the world. The setting presumes that it is a matter of choice regarding whether persons are underemployment or employed (Pietrykowski, 2019). In most cases, the policymakers fail to know that there is access to employment opportunities.
Schools of Thought
Classical Political Economy
Adam Smith Role on Labor as an Economist
Adam Smith, economist, opened the chapter known as the causes of improvement in the power of labor distributed in different ranks of the people. The principle of increased returns on labor division has a significant increase in productivity towards laboring in sharp contrast with harsh attitudes. This purview provides substantiated desire for promotion and salary increase witnessed in different organizations worldwide, which transforms the quality approach to growth in different careers.
Reserve Army of Labour Marxist Political Economy
According to Karl Marx, workers’ wages should be directly proportional to the worker’s labor power. The above concept resulted in the questioning of surplus distribution in the capitalist society (Pietrykowski, 2019). Karl Marx further stated the relative surplus population, which refers to the people’s inability to work or workers being conscripted in the workplace, under authority or command of the owner’s capital which tend to limit liberated innovation and creativity in various fields.
Labour Theory of Value Production and Reproduction Surplus Value Exploitation
According to the labor theory, Karl Max argues that commodities are determined by the need to produce the commodity, which implies that most commodities come from the earth.Neo-Classical thinkers focused on both machines and jobs (Pietrykowski, 2019). The approach emphasizes the increase in production through having an understanding of the people. The classical thinkers, however, stress tasks and structure.
Neo-Classical Political Economy
The Neo-Classical Theory is the extended version of the classical theory wherein the behavioral sciences get included in the management. The approach is often referred to as the human relations or organizational behavioral theory approach (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, 2020). According to this line of thought, the value of goods or services is determined by maximizing the hypothetical utility value of the income-constrained persons with profits from the firm’s production and including the available factors of production and information. In most cases, the theory has been justified by its rationale under considerable questions in recent years,
Institutional economics focuses on knowing the role of the process of evolution. When people work regularly, it shapes the worlds’ view (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, 2020). The institutional economics deals with an understanding of the role of the evolutionary process in shaping economic behaviors. Today the leading approach to economics is institutional economics.
Keynesian Political Economy
According to Klein, it is essential for the government to increased demands in boosting growth. Further, he argues that the government needs to maintain full employment (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, 2020). During the contraction phase, Keynes advocated for deficit spending. Under this notion, Klein argues that increased government spending alongside reduced taxation can help stimulate economic growth in the various sectors by pulling the market demand and averting the depression impacts in the economy.
In conclusion, People work for many reasons, while other does not work at all. Even though not all work is paid, energy and time are dedicated to tackling the job duties assigned when someone is working. With the increased globalization, which has resulted in rapid growth in many countries, there is a debate on which sector of the economy is the main source of growth that could be the primary source of growth for developing countries. Therefore, being productive during work is a factor of consideration when working in any organization.
Also, gender division of labor and gender inequality depends upon cultural beliefs, the value of gender differences in traits and competencies, and characters. However, technology in most workplaces has enabled companies to continue the shift from the analog or outdated to the digital world for a better future working environment as witnessed in the 21st century
International Labour Organization. (2020). The future of work (The future of work). Web.
Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development. (2020). OECD future of work. OECD. Web.
Pietrykowski, B (2019) “The Future of Work” in “Work” Cambridge: Polity Stilwell Chapter 36 “Technology, Industry and Work”.
Warde, A (1990) “The Future of Work” – Useful on Fordism and Post Fordism.