This is a business research paper and the topic selected for this research paper is “How to Adopt the Appropriate Sampling Technique.” The paper contains an introduction, the objectives of the research paper have been clearly stated, and the background of the research has been identified. The need for sampling has been identified and analyzed. Various ways of sampling have been analyzed and the Application of appropriate method has been discussed. The literature review has been conducted from various sources. The findings and analysis of the research study have been indicated. A well-drawn conclusion has been given for the research paper.
Sampling can be defined as the selection or choosing of some part of an aggregate or totality based on the judgment or the inference about the aggregate or the totality is made. In other words, sampling can be referred to as a practice of obtaining information on the whole population by investigating a fraction in the research. In the sampling technique, the research approach is the generalization and drawing the inferences based on the samples taken.
“Sampling is the process of selecting units (e.g., people, organizations) from a population of interest so that by studying the sample we may fairly generalize our results back to the population from which they were chosen”. (Trochim, 2006, para.1). Sampling is done mainly on the assumption that the data will be much useful in enabling various parameters in the study. The sample is a vital part of the study of population and the analysis of them.
All items in any field of the research consist of a universe or the population and the complete enumeration of all items in the population are known as the inquiry or the analysis in the research data. Each and every slightest element in the bias in such an inquiry will get larger as the number of the observations tends to increase.
The field study is much common in the present life and the cost and the time are the various resources that are available and have a good pathway to the selection of the respondents in the survey. The respondents selected should be as representative of the total population as possible to produce a diminutive cross-section.
The selected respondent in the research is called the sample and the process of selecting them is the sampling process which is also known as the sampling technique.
Need for Sampling
Sampling is used in practice for numerous reasons. It can save time and money, it is less expensive than the survey study that is conducted and they are relatively faster. Sampling can evolve into more accurate measures for the sample study and is usually conducted by trained analysts. Sampling is the only way that can contain infinitely many members or the size of the population. It is a vital choice when certain tests involve the destruction item of the study.
“Sampling is the best way to place an order. Though it is a difficult and time-ending process it will help the exporter to get the order from the buyer. The purpose of sampling is not only to get bulk orders but also it gives some additional benefits to the exporters. By doing sampling the exporter can estimate the consumption and the developments of the firm”. (Karthikeyan, 2008, para.5).
Implications of Sampling
A sample design is a definite plan in obtaining the sample from the given population. It refers to the technique or certain set of procedures of the researcher in selecting the items for sampling. Sample design may as well lay down the number of items to be included in the sample. The sample design is well planned before the data collection. Many sample designs can be chosen by the researcher. Some of the sample designs are easier to apply. Research must select and prepare the sample designs that are reliable and appropriate for their studies.
Sampling theory relates to the study of the interactions between the population and the samples. Sampling theory applies to random samples. The main problem of sampling theory is the relationship between a parameter and the statistic. It mainly deals with the assumptions and the estimation of the parameters in the study. The sampling theory is conventional in obtaining the exact estimation, the testing of the hypothesis and concluding with statistical inferences.
Objectives of the Study
“The objectives of a research project summarize what is to be achieved by the study. Objectives should be closely related to the statement of the problem. For example, if the problem identified is low utilization of child welfare clinics, the general objective of the study could be to identify the reasons for this low utilization, to find solutions. The general objective of a study states what researchers expect to achieve by the study in general terms”. (Module 6: Formulation of research objectives, n.d., para.3). The main objective of the study according to the paper relating to sampling deals with the following:
- The identification of the sample size and the design
- Analysis of the sampling techniques and procedures
- To know the various sampling methods and procedures.
The word sampling in a simple term means the task of selecting an appropriate sample based on which a conclusion can be drawn. The main aim of the Sampling Technique is to obtain a sample that is representative of the whole group. The three issues that are important in the sampling process are the sample representation, the technique used for sampling, and the size of the sample (Bordens, 2006). “The appropriate sampling plan for a study depends very much on what the study is trying to find out, and on its strategy for doing that”. (Punch, 2006, p.50).
For all methods of sampling, the sampling frame should be perfect and absolute. (Panneerselvam, 2004). Sample design is a form of sample technique. “A sample design is a definite plan for obtaining a sample from the sampling frame. It refers to the technique or the procedure the researcher would adopt in selecting some sampling units from which inferences about the population is drawn”. (Kothari, 2004, p.153). When the research is quantitative; then the Probability Sampling Technique can be used like the Simple Random Sampling, the Systematic Sampling, the Cluster Sampling Technique, etc. The Probability Sampling Technique is based on the probability case of events in the research study. The probability sampling technique guarantees that all the identities in the sample have got an equal chance for selection.
When the research is qualitative, then the Non Probability Sampling Technique has to be used. The Non Probability Sampling Technique is not based on any probable events. The different methods of sampling that are used are the Snowball, Quota and Convenience Samples.
The Purposive Sampling Technique is a type of Non-Probability Sampling Technique. “Any complex research study requires more than one sampling technique and often involves both probability and purposive sampling techniques”. (Tashakkori & Teddlie, 2003, p.292). The Sampling Technique should be based on the theoretical framework and the research questions of the research proposal. (Tashakkori, Teddlie, 2003). “Specific sampling techniques can allow us to determine or control the likelihood of specific individuals being selected for study”. (Rubin & Babbie, 2007, p.132).
The use of the appropriate Sampling Technique generates a representative sample which is the essence of sampling. The determination of the appropriate Sampling Technique is also dependent upon whether the research is domestic or international research. Both the probability and the non-probability sampling techniques have got advantages and disadvantages. “Today, probability sampling remains the primary method of selecting large, representative samples for social research, including national political polls. At the same time, probability sampling can be impossible or inappropriate in many research situations”. (Babbie, 2008, p.203). The non-probability Sampling Technique is more useful for social research study. “The most appropriate sampling technique for domestic research is that of random or probabilistic sampling, but this may not always be true in the international context”. (Akar, 2007, p.386).
Several sampling techniques are used for statistical purposes. “There are still other statistical sampling methods, with special applications”. (Langley, 2010, p.50). The research is fully based on the sample size and the methodology used in selecting the sample. (Blankenship, Breen, Dutka, 1998). The research team should consider all the key issues involved in the sampling process before adopting a sampling technique.
Findings and Analysis
Findings regarding how to use the appropriate Sampling Technique are critical to issue for the duration of the procedures of manipulation and arrangement in the investigation. “Proper care must be taken to ensure that the samples are drawn in a manner that avoids any bias and that the data collection minimizes non-sampling (non-random, systematic) errors. To achieve those goals, practitioners are expected to observe sound practices in designing samples and administering surveys and field measurements3”. (Draft general guidelines for sampling and surveys for small-scale CDM project activities, n.d., p.3).
- Sampling methods help to describe the exact sampling aims and target inhabitants and also the dimensions used to gather information.
- Appropriate Sampling Technique builds up the sampling framework.
- Appropriate Sampling Technique randomizes sampling issues and gives an illustration for the sample.
- The sampling Technique supports the surveys to make sure that all the information gathering is executed correctly.
After collecting the Information Data Analysis helps to make convinced that the entire information collection tool will obtain the relevant data that we need for the research. The analysis of data is an enduring process of the research and that helps to understand the working of the appropriate Sampling Technique in the research undertaken. The Data Analysis consists of the investigative data examination and the arithmetical data examination methods. The different apparatus used for the analysis are spontaneous and users friendly like the software and the statistical apparatus. Various methods of Data Analysis are Qualitative Analysis, Quantitative Analysis, and Content Analysis.
Qualitative Analysis of Data
There is a difference between qualitative and quantitative research. Also, the relative importance between these two types of Data Analysis is relevant in the field of analysis and the customer behaviors in the banking industry. Qualitative researches are comprises data that is in numerical form and the questions provided in the questionnaire are close-ended and the respondents are not at liberty to express their views and suggestions. “Qualitative data consist of words and observation, not numbers. As with all data, analysis and interpretation are required to bring order and understanding”. (Taylor-power & Renner, 2003, para.1).
Content Analysis is another form of analysis of qualitative data which are reduced or minimized to the arithmetical information and it is the technique of investigation by using the media through the articles, newspapers and also through the messages of the politicians on TV and radio. The intention of the content analysis is the maximization of all the relevant data needed for understanding the buying behaviors in the banking industry and communication among them. “Content analysis is a method for summarizing any form of content by counting various aspects of the content. This enables a more objective evaluation than comparing content based on the impressions of a listener. “(Dennis, 2005, para.1).
Quantitative Analysis of Data
Quantitative Research is the way to plan analyzing and examination of the quantitative data collection from the consumers to understand the buying behaviors in the field of the banking industry. The idea of Quantitative Analysis is the employment of the mathematical and statistical model and the analysis of the hypothesis. “A business or financial analysis technique that seeks to understand behavior by using complex mathematical and statistical modeling, measurement and research. Quantitative analysis can be done for some reasons such as measurement, performance evaluation, or valuation of a financial instrument. It can also be used to predict real-world events such as changes in a share price”. (Quantitative analysis, 2010, para.1). The quantitative link is the major connection between the empirical methods and the Mathematical Analysis used for the Data Analysis. Quantitative information is the main usage of the quantitative variables and they are measurement oriented and based on the outcomes.
Sample Size-The sample size of the research proposal is an essential aspect of every study and it is based on the nature of the investigation. “Before deciding how large a sample should be, you have to define your study population and also When research costs are fixed, a useful rule of thumb is to spend about one half of the total amount for data collection and the other half for data analysis.”. (Fridah, n.d., para.56). Various restrictions influence the sample dimension as well as sample plan and information gathering measures. Dimension of the sample can be decided by a variety of restrictions
In research proposal, an appropriate sample technique helps to save time and money. But if an appropriate sampling policy is applied; a suitable sample dimension or size must be chosen and essential protection should be obtained to diminish dimension and sample faults. Sampling is the procedure of choosing appropriate entities from inhabitants. Sample is the area we adopt from the large inhabitants for investigation. Consciousness about the values of sampling is vital to the execution of the majority processes of research study. The sampling Technique helps to give convincing and consistent data needed to carry out the proper research proposal. The sampling technique procedure is prepared by the investigators with a plan to depict conclusions for the whole inhabitants after performing a study on an example receive from inhabitants.
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