The organizational behavior entails the organization’s structural design, intergroup relations, organizational concepts, and the organization’s environment interactions. Gordon (1991) defines the organizational behavior as the study of the individuals or the group’s acts in organizations. The paper will look at the people relationships in any organization; this will include the structure of the management dynamics of any organization.
Reinforcement theory is a function of its consequence; the theory states that behavior is environmentally caused, and one behavior can be changed by setting a control consequence which can exercise self-direction. The success of every organization depends on its management; this therefore warrants apt integrity and competency of the individuals in its management hierarchy.
Elements of organizational behavior
Robbins (2003) argues that the management of every organization is steered on the basis of the organization’s philosophy, vision, goals and values. This basis therefore spearheads the organization’s culture which constitutes the social environment, formal organization and the informal organization. The culture of any organization determines what procedures are followed within that organization. The employees’ perception on this is positive and fosters their motivation n achieving their individual cum organization’s goals. The result of this development is that there will improve relationships in an organization. This, therefore, forms the framework upon which the organization operates.
Compare and contrast different organizational structures and culture
There are different types of organizational structures. Different companies, therefore, choose different types of structures depending on their preference as per the goals of the organization. The different types of structures (Brooks 2003) include divisional structures, traditional structures, and matrix structures. California pizza kitchen and Hewlett Packard are different organizations that deal with different products.
However, the two organizations have different structures in place. California Pizza Kitchen is one of the oldest and the most famous pizza chains around the globe; it has approximately 34,000 franchise outlets, delivery units, and kiosks in over 100 countries. Hewlett Packard is a reputable company that is well known as HP. It is an international company specializing in information technology issues. The head office of the company is based in Palo Alto, California, USA. Hewlett Packard embraces the matrix type of organizational structure. This structure enables the organization to organize the employees and share different responsibilities on the basis of the different types of products that are dealt with within the company.
The organization’s management does this with respect to the competency and merit of the employee. This kind of structure has cultivated the competitiveness of the company, thus enabling the company to grow to be an international information technology company. They operate in all corners of the world. Nahavandi & Ali (1998) Hewlett Packard develops and manufactures computers and software.
Hewlett Packard uses various marketing strategies so as to compete effectively in the market. They focus their marketing efforts on households, all ranges, and classes of businesses and enterprises, they use online distribution. The company also delivers electronics and technology vendors. The meet the set objectives, managers of PH, ensures that the benefit of all ranges of stakeholders is the address.
California pizza kitchen, on the other hand, uses a traditional type of organizational structure. This kind of structure entails the functional divisions and various departments of the organization. This kind of structure has greatly enhanced the organization’s effectiveness. The California pizza kitchen employees strictly adhere to the laid down company rules and procedures. This greatly fosters the generation of the apt working environment since the organization’s lines of authority in all levels of management are clear and precise. In accordance with the organization’s stipulated rules; therefore, the organization’s employees execute their duties diligently in a professional manner.
Relationship between the structure and culture practiced in each of these Organizations and its effect on business performance.
California pizza kitchen and Hewlett Packard Company embrace different kinds of cultures. Culture is a general issue that dictates the organization’s behavior. This includes the groups’ beliefs, attitudes, artifacts, values, and behaviors. The organization’s culture is essential in that it regulates the individual’s actions within the organization.
The two organizations embrace different cultures. For instance, the California pizza kitchen applies the control culture. This kind of culture has seen the organization’s leaders manage the organization’s affairs effectively. The organization’s rules and regulations keep the workers on toes, thus enhancing a good working atmosphere. On the other hand, Hewlett Packard relies on the market culture whereby the delegation of duties and responsibilities is done with regard to the employee’s level of competence. This culture, therefore, molds the organization’s employees (Robbins 1998) to be result-oriented, thus boosting the organization’s competitiveness. The company’s market leadership and competitive pricing have led to its outstanding performance globally.
However, the different structures and cultures assumed by different companies are all aimed at the common goal.
Structural design and culture deal with the organization’s leadership and development. The structure and culture applied in the two organizations have brought together all the effective teams of all levels within the two organizations. This has equipped the two organizations on how to tackle the future challenges through the provision of guidance for rotational succession planning. The organization’s culture and structure in California pizza kitchen tips the executives on how to leverage their strengths and alert them on the unforeseen black spots which are likely to hinder the normal functioning of the organization.
Norman (2006) explains how the organizational design entails the careful determination of the appropriate organizational structure which tallies with the company’s objectives and the future plans. This has enabled the organization foster the pursuance of the collective goals whilst managing the performance of the company.
Analyzes the factors, which influence individual behavior at work
California pizza kitchen
The factors influencing the individual’s work performance in California pizza kitchen are: leadership, remuneration and the welfare of the employees.
The quality provision of services in California pizza kitchen is mainly due to the employee’s hard work, competence and commitments. This is greatly enhanced by the good leadership management at California pizza kitchen. The leadership recognizes the employee’s hard work and reciprocates through rewards and promotions. This fosters the workers job satisfaction hence the improved performance of the organization.
The handsome remuneration packages offered at California pizza kitchen has also attracted the highly skilled and competitive employees who increase the level of output in the organization.
The organizational structure of Hewlett Packard addresses the employee’s level of job satisfaction. This enhances the growth of the business. The success of every business solely depends on the individuals running the affairs of the business. The pay package of her employees is attractive. The management authority of Hewlett Packard carries out a survey regularly by issuance of the job satisfaction questionnaires which are filled by the employees. This enables the management body know her strengths and weaknesses hence plan on how to cope with them accordingly. Suggestion boxes have been erected in Hewlett Packard company offices globally this makes it easier for the employees to channel their grievances.
Analyze how organizational theory underpins principles and practices of organizing and of management
Organization theory encompasses the general organizational structure in terms of, mechanisms of coordination and control, centralization of power, formalization, vertical and horizontal differentiation. The organization theory relates the organization’s operation and structure to the organization’s size, environmental factors and technology.
The organizational theory therefore positively influences the following Principles of organizational design
Division of labor
Brooks (2003) argues that the growth of the business depends on the decisions, behavior and the integrity of the individuals running it. The organizational theory enhances the recruitment of professionals of various relevant fields within the organization. Organizations are therefore able to embrace meritocracy and compentency in recruitment of the personnel. Division of labor ensures that the activities of the organization are closely managed and supervised by the departmental heads.
Division of labor entails the separation of a work process into various tasks with different individuals being allocated different tasks along their areas of specialization. This breaking down of work into simpler repetitive tasks alleviates the unnecessary motion thus minimal handling of tools. Specialization and division of labor within the organization boosts greatly the employees’ morale and job satisfaction.
Authority and responsibility
Nahavandi & Ali (1998) states that the organizational theory outlines the duties and responsibilities of various employees in various departments of the organization and including how they are disseminated to the workers of all levels in the organization. The theory also influences the leaders of the organization in upholding the office ethics at all times. For the effective performance of a business, the leadership has to be intact.
The theory also outlines how the proper mechanisms are put in place to ensure that the heads of departments, supervisors and all the personnel in the management hierarchy are people of high integrity. Organizational theory fosters the enactment of clear policies regarding the code of conduct of the employees to ensure that there is smooth running of the business. The management hierarchy is therefore clearly outlined including the chain of command. This includes the protocols within the organization which should are made clear to all.
Unity of command
Organizational theory points out that the chain of command from the senior officials in the management to the junior employees in the lower ranks. This is the formal line of authority, responsibility and communication within the organization. The theory of organization states the importance of presenting the hierarchy of any organization so that the chain of command is clear for everyone.
The chain of command within an organization helps to show the definition of communication in the organization (Mullin 1998). The subordinate members of staff are therefore able to know and identify their immediate bosses whom they should report to incase of any matter of urgency. This ensures existence of peace and tranquility within the organization thus making the working environment favorable and conducive for proper execution of duties.
An organized, healthy and safe environment is necessary for the employees to comfortably discharge their duties. This is greatly enhanced by the organizational theory. However most business institutions do not provide this hence makes the employees feel unsatisfied with their job. Some other vices such as gossiping, favoritism, and backbiting are common in the modern employment sectors.
This does not go well with the employees and thus make them feel unsatisfied with their jobs. Effective mechanisms should be enacted to ensure a healthy workplace therefore improves the employee’s performance and job satisfaction.
Spans of control
The main objective of every business organization is to minimize the cost of expenses whilst maximizing profit. The organizational theory warrants the regulation of the number of subordinates under one manager’s supervision. A wide span of control is therefore necessary since it reduces expenses although it requires adequate management skills and may end up reducing effective feedback.
A number of parameters which determines the number of employee’s under one manager’s supervision (Mullins 1999) are clearly outlined in the organizational structure of the company. This includes the type of work being supervised; characteristics of the manager; availability of the manager to supervise; characteristics of the subordinates; competency of the subordinates; urgency and the nature of the task at hand. The culture of the organization also dictates how closer the supervision should be administered.
The organization theory points out the strategies stipulated in pursuance of meeting the objectives. The strategies laid down depends n the contingency factors which conditions the functioning of the organization. The contingency factors which include the organizational structure of the business firm; the size of the organization; the organizations’ culture and technology used in accomplishing the tasks of the organization. The combination of skills, knowledge, work methods and computers are used to integrate the resource inputs of the organization into optimal realistic inputs of the organization. The organizations therefore require careful management in order to satisfy and balance the necessary environmental needs which are detrimental to the organization.
Different approaches to management and theories of organization used by two organizations
There are different approaches to management and theories of organization which may be used by different companies. Considering Hewlett Packard Company and California Pizza Kitchen, it may be concluded that different approaches to management are used, as well as various theories of organizational structures. Contingency theory and systems theory are the focus of the discussion. The main idea of the contingency theory is that there is no specific structure in the company and the situation plays an important role there. Organizational designs are very important for every organization because it determine many things such as delegation of duties in the company.
Contingency theory can be divided into two types with different characteristics. The first type is the organic designs characterized by the bureaucratic nature of an organization. The second type of an organizational design is the mechanistic organizational design. Systems theory is the one that creates a proper structure of the organization. Like a system that should have interrelated functioning areas, the organization has correlated departments and each department is related to another in a very productive way.
This theory is applied at Hewlett Packard Company, the company’s chief executive officer and the entire management body takes into consideration all aspects of the company’s situation while making decisions regarding the running of the company. This includes the recruitment of the personnel especially those who are to take up the leadership positions. Facilitative and participative leadership is therefore embraced at Hewlett Packard.
Being aware of two types of ruling in this theory, it should be stated that the Hewlett Packard Company has developed mechanistic organizational design. Mechanistic structures are very flexible which mean that changes can be made to suit the needs of customers. In addition, there is a lot of delegation in this kind of structure because it is not being run in the central point. Managers believe that the employees are capable of handling issues without being controlled (Dewey & Bowker, 2010).
California Pizza Kitchen embraces the systems theory; this has seen the company put various mechanisms in place to enhance the achievement of the organization’s goals. This includes the proper organization, planning and motivation of the organization’s employees. The systems theory has also seen the company embrace and acquires the advanced technology in execution of its mandate. This includes the organizations online services especially in dealing with the clients. California Kitchen Pizza always looks for the experts in management to analyze their management and the functions of management. California, like all other organizations, has systems that should be interrelated in their working so that full functioning of the organization is achieved.
From the analysis of these two types of structures, mechanistic structure is the most effective because of its flexibility and can function well if the functions of management are exercised. Mechanistic structure will enable the managers to implement their functions without any difficulty since the system is flexible. It is also believe that the system will be beneficial for Hewlett Packard company because there will be understanding between the managers and the employees. Mechanistic structures allow employees to review the planned decisions and to comment on them either positively or negatively. Besides, the human resource manager should know that all employees do not have leadership qualities and therefore group of employees who are learned be selected so that they review the decision made (Dewey & Bowker, 2010).
Discuss different leadership styles and effectiveness of these leadership approaches in the case study
Leadership is the art of influencing the positive outcomes in different perspectives of the organizational situations (Hodgetts 2003). There are different organizational leadership styles that dictate the way people relate. There are different leadership styles and each style is different and has a different degree of effectiveness. The following are some types of the leadership including their sources of power.
It is a leadership which is based on rewards and tokens. This kind of leadership is depicted by Weston as outlined in the case study. Weston fires Devine because of what is deemed as his incompetency. This is the kind of leadership which cultivates and instills the culture of hard work and discipline amongst the employees and the entire personnel involved in the development of the business. This kind of leadership embraces hard work and discipline in the sense that, the productive employees are rewarded through promotions whereas the under achieving ones including those who do not stick to the organizations rules’ are given severe punishments which includes demotions sometimes.
In this system of leadership therefore, the clear chain of command enables the system work best thus enhancing realistic achievement of the results. The reward and punishment is the key motivator to the organizations’ employees. It is the chief executive officers’ obligation to give clear guidelines, duties and responsibilities to be strictly adhered to by the subordinates.
This is an inspirational kind of leadership whereby the employees are inspired by the leadership and the management of the organization. With respect to the case study above, Rohrtech exhibits this kind of leadership when he appreciates O’Grady’s efforts and experience by giving him promotion to replace Devine as the acting COO. This kind of leadership warrants the workers appreciation, when workers are appreciated for the good work which contributes to the success of the organization; they get motivated and become self-driven in their quest to be part of the performing cum winning organization. In transitional organizations, it has been found out that leaders and managers inspire their subordinates through actions and inspirations as opposed to rewards and tokens.
This type of leadership can be described as a leadership where all levels of management are involved in the process of making the decisions (Mulli 1999). This basically targets the collective responsibility and the mutual ownership and the desire to achieve the organizations’ mission. This kind of leadership fosters the employees’ commitment to the achievement of the organizations objectives where they have been involved in relevant decision making.
The business organizations are so dynamic, and are prone to situational problems thus different situations therefore warrants different leadership styles for the achievement of the amicable solutions. Maccoby (1998) sates that, Problems in an organization may arise as a result of its underperformance, change in the leadership personnel’s or the overall change of the organizations management. In the provided Case Study, Heindrich demonstrates this kind of leadership; he diligently heads the resultant of the combination of TriVac industries and Rohrtech. As a situational leader therefore he is very versatile and sensitive enough to judge the moods and the trend of the organization hence change the mode of leadership style to counteract the alarming situation accordingly.
This style is characterized by the leaders’ use of strong and powerful words in order to convince their employees to work. The employee’s morale is completely eroded in this leadership style.
This is a kind of leadership whereby the leader bears the responsibility for his subjects and towards the society at large including those who are underprivileged.
The servant leaders provides leadership for the good of the organization, he/she ensures that the welfare of her employees are sufficiently catered for. The leadership models above therefore can be effectively utilized by the chief executive officers of various organizations to alleviate various operational, administrative and ethical problems experienced by the organizations.
Explain the different motivational theories in the case study and answer the follow up questions
Motivation is an activity which encourages people act. There are a number of different motivational theories. Some of the theories are going to be considered in this paper on the basis of the TriVac Industries Inc. case study. Tom O’Grady was motivated in the situation by means of the Acquired Needs Theory. The main idea of this theory is to show the managers or those who take up higher positions that he works better than others with the purpose to get a higher position in the future.
Tom O’Grady wanted to become a COO, so he did everything he could to achieve his goal as he was motivated by this great desire. Considering the relationships between Tom O’Grady and Kurt Devine, it may be concluded that there was an Attitude-Behavior Consistency motivation theory in its negative connotation. Kurt Devine was appointed to TriVac Industry as COO, but Tom O’Grady was against foreign intrusion into the company’s affairs.
Using this theory he made Kurt Devine quit. The main facilities O’Grady used were as follows, he did not give Devine any support, refused to educate him and give necessary knowledge for Devine to perform his tasks, provided him with incomplete information, did not correct Devine if he understood that he was mistaken, and biased other workers against a new COO.
Within the same relations the Control Theory may be considered. TriVac’s representative O’Grady was against German (Rohrtech) interference with their company as they wanted to control the affairs themselves. This was one of the reasons that motivated O’Grady for actions against Devine. Reactance motivation theory is used in the same situation because of the same reasons. O’Grady does not want to be influenced by others, he does not want to limit the freedom of making decision, so he tries to do all possible to eliminate the problem. This is the main motivator.
It is also possible to consider the case of Expectancy Theory in the case study. O’Grady did not want Devine to work in the company because he did not want foreigners influence the organization. Using the Expectancy Theory O’Grady impacted other employees and said that when he leaves, their affairs will come better. Other employees were motivated to tell the president that the present COO could not cope with his duties hoping for the better situation in the company in the future.
It may be also said that a self-determination motivation theory was used. Thus, O’Grady knew his personal potential, he was sure that he would cope with the task better, so he tried to remove Devine from his position in order to take it. O’Grady’s inherent growth tendencies were seen in his desire to run the organization and become a COO. Thus, it may be concluded that within one situation a number of different motivational theories may be considered as in most cases people are influenced not by one specific factor, but by a number of factors which determine the nature of the motivational theories.
Justification of choice by relating it with the motivational theory and the practice at TriVac industries
If I were appointed the COO of Trivac Industries, I would I would embrace the process theories. This theory molds the behavior and character of the individuals involved in the running of the organization. Huczynski & Buchanan (2003) outlines how motivational theories reinforce and shape the performance of the organization. The management hierarchy including the rule s and regulations are made clear to the employees of the organization. These theories will reward the employees on the basis of their performance, whereby the productive ones are rewarded while the less productive and the unbecoming ones are punished.
It is evident that TriVac Industries lack proper communication and impeccable relations amongst the company’s employees. The application of the expectancy theory therefore will streamline the organization’s management hierarchy whilst motivating the employees thus improving the performance of the organization.
Describe the nature of groups and behavior by answering the follow up questions
Considering the case study from the point of view of the groups there and their nature, it may be highlighted two main groups. The first group is TriVac’s employees who were influenced by Tom O’Grady and the second group was Weston and those who supported him. Dwelling upon the behavior of the first group before Devine’s appointment, it may be concluded that O’Grady was not satisfied with his dismissal from the position of the controller, but he respected the previous heads and did not do anything. After a new person arrived (Devine), O’Grady became openly aggressive.
He not only did not help a new COO, but tried to harm him be means of different facilities, like gossiping, giving incomplete information, failing to provide him with necessary support, etc. Weston was the representative of the ruling class in the company. He was appointed for the position of the president after Heinrich was fired. His position both before and after Devine’s appointment was the same.
He said anything neither when Rohrtech and Heinrich battled, nor when a new COO was appointed. Still, he acted in the way he wanted. Thus, after Devine was appointed for the position, Weston called salespeople almost every day but spoke to Devine only in cases he started the ;conversation first. Thus, it may be completed that his behavior remained the same he was neither glad nor upset about the appearance of a new person on the position of COO. Even before his appointment he sold his shares to Rohrtech, a foreign person rather than sell them to Heinrich, a person he has been working with.
Identify the lack of team work and the influences that threaten the success in the case study
As witnessed in the case study, improper leadership of the organization is detrimental to the operation of the company. Hodgetts (2003) explains how lack of consultations among the officials of the company leads to the recruitment of incompetent employees. The failure of the business organization to make realistic profits is normally due to underperforming employees or lack of courtesy amongst the employees hence scaring away the clients or rather the potential customers.
The chief executive officer including the departmental heads should administer the transactional leadership style for this case; this will greatly enhance the company’s performance, since the deviant employees will be subjected to punishments or demotions while the hardworking employees are rewarded through promotions and incentives. This will greatly improve the working atmosphere. Lack of team work depicted in the case study when O’Grady’ refuses to tip Devine on how to strategically handle the TriVac industries’ affairs.
Matters of decision making especially in matters of decision making should therefore be consultative and all inclusive. The principles of the hiring process should be clearly outlined. This will ensure that the employees recruited in the company meet the organization’s requirements for instance, code of conduct, merit and competence. The organization’s employees therefore will diligently undertake their responsibilities above the organization’s minimum standards.
Lack of apt environment for the execution of duties also leads to inefficiency of the organization. This is depicted in the case study whereby O’Grady undermines Devine’s leadership to extent spreading gossips about Devine. This lowers the employee inter-relations. As in the case study, Devine should approach Weston and explain to him the factors affecting the company especially the leadership.
He should build a good rapport with him and try to explain to him that he is an asset to the company if given an apt working environment. In order to create a good working environment in an organization, the steering committees including the human resource division of the company should enact clear policies regarding the punishment of unbecoming employees who do not adhere to the organization’s rules.
This will stem out several factors which are detrimental to the normal working environment for the execution of duties. These vices include backbiting and gossiping as exhibited by O’Grady’ in the case study; O’Grady’ goes around spreading gossips maliciously with an objective of sabotaging Devine’s leadership. This act portrays Devine as a leader who lacks credibility and professionalism. Devine therefore looses respect from his juniors. This makes it difficult for him to delegate and command the junior employees,
Suggestion for teamwork
Having considered the case, no any specific and innovative technologies were involved there. There was some mentioning of the meetings between TriVac Industries Inc. (Ohio) and Rohrtech (Germany). From the conversation and the situation in the case study it is seen that meeting is provided personally without the use of any innovations. Furthermore, when a candidate on COO position was discussed, the sales manager was considered as inappropriate as he lives in California and did not want to move to Ohio. But, this is not a problem with the use of different innovative technologies. If I were O’Grady I would consider some applications which are really useful in running the modern business, like Facabook, Twitter, and blogging.
With applications like Facebook and Twitter applications, the employees do not have to be in the office to have a meeting. There are technologies like IM chat services. These have helped the company to have meetings on the airplane. The blogs in the companies are popular. These have been boosted by use of Web 2.0 technology. Blogging is a very good tool that provides two-way Web-based communication capability.
This is achieved when a blogger, or writer, posts an item on the Web and readers or users post their comments. Users will post comments thus providing a way of getting views from different people over a matter. Companies with their own blogs, referred to as private blogs, are able to provide employees with a very efficient way of real time communication. This capability is provided through liveblogging. This will bring more usability within our organization.
This channel of communication, blogging, has other features which are desirable to any company seeking to improve their communication. The features that come with blogs are much different from other communication channels like e-mail and instant messaging services. Blogging is much receptive to the users because they provide an open way of communication unlike the traditional telephone system where someone has to follow some protocol when addressing some callers. Blogs outdo emails because comments are written in a free style giving users the freedom of sharing their views without fear of intimidation.
Considering the problem whether O’Grady was right in the method he used to become a new COO, one may say that the end justifies the means, but let me disagree with this proverb, especially in this case. It is immoral to harm another person with the aim to occupy his position. O’Grady did not play fair. He did not give Devine an opportunity to perform his job, usually trying to spoil the first impression of him and do not providing him with the information he required. Furthermore, he biased employees against a new COO that did not improve the situation. It may be concluded that unfair actions provided by O’Grady did not show him from a good side and the way he took up a COO position were awful and disgusting as well as the way he did those.
The main objective of every organization is to make realistic profits with minimum cost of expenses. It is therefore necessary for the organization to formulate a good organizational structure whilst building a good working environment for proper execution of duties by its members. The character and behavior of the individual employees within the company builds the organizational behavior of the company.
Gordon (1991) recommends that the organizations’ steering committees should put proper mechanisms in place to ensure that competent employees are recruited into the company on the basis of merit. Modern technologies improve the organizations credibility cum professionalism and therefore should be embraced within an organization. In order to improve employee inter-relations, the company should organize regular workshops. This will foster the team spirit and capacities build the employees. It is through these workshops that refresher courses are subjected to the employees. This greatly enhances the organizations performance whilst striving to meet the international standards.
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