Overview of the case
Frito Lay is a company that manufactures and distributes snack foods and this company was incorporated in 1932 in the US with its headquarters in San Antonio Texas. The company expanded to what it is today in the early 1930s and they moved its headquarters to Dallas for strategic reasons. The company is fully owned by Pepsi Company and currently is one of the largest snack food corporations not only in the US but in other countries. Frito Lay operates in many countries and went public in 1954 since then it has merged with many companies, acquired others, they have also diversified the type of foods they are offering in the market. The company launched a new product in the year 2001 and in 2002 targeting various market segments. They have been getting customers from various demographics that is from the young generation to the old generation and this has created loyal and reliable customers for the business in and outside America. In the year 2007, they launched meat snacks which contain 100 calories and this product is distributed all over the country. However, initially, they were distributed only in Louisiana and Texas (Datamonitor,2009).
The company which is fully owned by Pepsi Company has launched a variety of snacks some of which are manufactured and distributed on a contract basis others are branded products. The majority of the products are distributed to independent distributors around the globe such as retail stores, warehouses convenience stores, food services, supermarkets, and grocery stores. In the year 2007, the company launched Tostitos Fours Tortilla Chips, Tostitos cream spinach Dip, and Tostitos creamy southwestern Ranch Dip. Then they signed a contract with one of the business partners to be able to supply the goods in North America. In the year 08 the company introduced two products Lays cracker crisp and Cheetos cracke. These products became top-selling products in the market. The company has been launching a quite variety of products (Kerin and Peterson, 2007).
The company has many key management staff however Jaya Kumar is the chief marketing officer and is responsible for the marketing department of the organization. The company has Randolph W. Melville as the senior vice president of sales. These two board members are backed by key staff members who assist them in carrying out their responsibilities in the area of marketing and sales. Apart from the marketing department, other staff members include Al Carey who is the President and chief Executive officer of the Company, Charles Nicholas is the vice president public affairs while Faniel Naor is the vice president in transformation and strategy. In the area of operations there is Leslie Starr Keating (Datamonitor ,2009).
The company is engaged in supplying snack food in US and other parts of the world. The type of snacks they provide include; Baken Ets Fried Pork Skin, Crackins, Corn snacks, fries, crackers, plantain chips, Go snacks, Maui chips, potato crisps, nuts and seeds, meat sticks, popcorn and they have dividied this into various brand names which include; Baken-ets, cheetos, Donitos, El Isleno, Flat earth, Fritos, Funyuns, Lays, Munchos, Oberto, rold gold, Ruffles, Sunchips, and Tostitos(Datamonitor ,2009).
Objectives and goals
The main objectives of this firm is to be able to produce, distribute and market snacks and developing the value of their plant as well as committing the company to have highly productive and people oriented products. The company also has an objective remaining the market leaders in the product by reducing the threats and taking up opportunities which are available to the company. The company wishes to remain competitive and strongly focused towards satisfaction by providing the best and healthy snacks to the public(Datamonitor ,2009).
The company wishes to achieve 10% growth in profits and increasing sales to achieve these objectives. The company currently wishes to have an increase of its revenue to 620 million and have 67% of chips use as well as 33% of vegetable use (Kerin and Peterson, 2007).
Success and performance measures
The company intends to have an increase in sales of vegetables, chips as well as the other Lay chips. The sales should increase by 10% in order to achieve their corporation goals and objections in order to achieve these, the company should be able to increase the sales from the total of 620 million currently to approximately 800 million. If the company does not achieve this it will be difficult for them to move on.
The main constraints of the company is the availability of resources because currently the company is experienced a degree in revenue due to current financial crisis which have affected many corporations. The company also should think of diversifying and penetrating other markets for their products like entering into strategic alliances with growing economies such as India, china, Iran and the African continent countries. These countries are experiencing a growth of the economy which is creating middle level income earners. The company should also think also think of penetrating vegetable dip market because the world is experiencing unprecedented cases of obesity and people are looking for healthy products (Datamonitor ,2009).
Statement of the problem
The company currently is experiencing a downward trend in revenue and they are faced with the problem of venturing into various markets as well as deciding the product to introduce into the market. The company has two types of products that they are likely to introduce to the marker or to aggressively market that is the vegetable chip and chip dip. There is also a growing market outside the United States America such as India, china Iran Saudi Arabia African counties and other Asian countries which the company should explore(Kerin and Peterson, 2007)
They are faced with a problem of deciding whether to aggressively market within the country or go international and also faced with problem of choosing which product to introduce or aggressively market. We have a task of assisting this company to decide which way to go and how to go about attaining that objective.
Also there are some governments that will impose high tariffs to protect their home industries. At times poor political environment will make countries make many regulations on countries entering and leaving countries, this will scare companies wanting to enter into the environment. Political environment is inclusive of tax laws, other government laws, government agencies, pressure groups that will form a barrier that bars entry into the country. There are also some good factors that offer opportunities for companies to enter into the market. The food industry has also many regulations to be complied with in order to achieve company goals (Armstrong G. & Kotler P. 2007).
The top management of Frito Lay was entitled to two percent savings on purchases at Frito Lay. Economic factors of a country are the measure of the ability of the citizens to purchase some goods or enjoy some services. It’s majoring how people spend their money, their power to purchase goods and services and income distribution among people. People in the United States of America have different patterns of savings and borrowing as compared to people of Africa. This is because of their culture. This makes them among the best countries to invest in the food industry so long as the company brands the product and services to suit the culture of the people. This country has the strong foreign exchange balance of payments that has led to their foreign economic stability and increase of their foreign currency values in the international market arena. With such kind of foreign income strength, the country is a good bet(Armstrong G. & Kotler P. 2007).
The cultures of people in different countries can affect the marketing strategies that a company will use as it enters new markets. Looking at the social cultural factors ethnocentricity is a major factor especially if the new marketplace is in a country with diverse cultures. This is a major challenge because most of these people hold so much to these cultures that it is very difficult to make them adopt your product and your marketing strategies(Kerin and Peterson, 2007).
Frito Lay had health and dental care plans for its full-time employees. Its part-time employees could also enjoy some health care services. The business also extends insurance services to its employees with 10 or more years of service. Those employees who fulfilled the required conditions where given a chance of purchasing basic policy for nursing home care for themselves, or their family members. The business also believes that its employees are its most important asset. It regards its employees as being the best in the industry; the business gives its employees rewarding challenges (Kerin and Peterson, 2007).
Ethnocentricity has also a great impact on the type of media to use in communication of the product preferences to people of diverse cultures i.e. the way the company will advertise its products and services in Britain will be different from the way the product will be advertised in Britain and the advertising media to use.
Frito Lay also has exploited modern technology in ensuring that it expands its business activities to different parts of the world. Chip dip was among the top three best selling commodities at Frito Lay web site. Frito Lay had owned two websites. These websites provided alternatives of shopping for members to products and services that are not available at the warehouse where they shopped. Additionally Frito Lay has exploited e-commerce; through e-commerce sales Frito Lay had made sales totaling to 11,675 million in the fiscal year 2007. Frito Customers used modern methods to buy products and services from the company by using, debit cards and private label Frito Lay credit cards (Datamonitor ,2009).
Frito Lay snack foods industry has appealed to the global market, with a very strong base in America and they have diversified their business activities to other parts of the world. From the year 2002-2008 the company had distribution centers within America. By the year 2007 Frito Lay had diversified its business operations into other parts of the world. Their business activities had also expanded to new territories. Frito Lay also formed international partnerships with other countries like Mexico, for example, Frito Lay had a 50-50 partner in a venture in the operation of Frito Lay distribution in Mexico(Datamonitor ,2009).
The company has variety of products in the area of snack food and it has a diversified market segment with strong brand names. They have established themselves in the market since 1932 when they were incorporated this gives them competitive age as compared to their competitors. Most customers always associate themselves with strong brand and will patronize the products of the company if the brand is strong.
Strength 1: One of the strengths of this company is strong brand names that are giving them the competitive age against other snack food manufacturers in the country. Their brand names are household names in the United States of America. They also have a strong product mix and this product mix makes them strong competitors in the market. Product mix ensures there is a product positioning in the country(Datamonitor ,2009).
Strength 2: this company has a stable financial position which gives them an advantaged against new comers to the market. They can use their financial position to competitively price their products such as selling the products to new markets at break even point thus ensuring the success of their brands(Datamonitor ,2009).
Strength 3: the company has the right products which are of the right quality and are reliable unlike other industry players the company has not faced any serious law suits in relation to their foods.
Strength 4: there is continued product innovation by the company research and development department and this gives the company a competitive age against their competitors.
Strength 5: the company has engaged themselves into activities which have been supported by the parent company. This has made them one of the largest and stable food manufacturer and distributor. This support has made the company have strong financial support, superior product recognition and identity (Datamonitor ,2009).
There are many weaknesses that this company has faced.
Weakness 1: one of the weaknesses that this company has faced is the withdrawal of some products of the market which raised doubts about safety of the foods among the consumers and they gave the competitors grounds to explore in relation to quality of products the company offers. The main reasons that made this products to be withdrawn from the markets were because people with allergies had suffered while using the products especially those people who were to allergic to milk faced life threatening allergic reactions(Datamonitor ,2009).
Weakness 2: this required the company to retrain their staff on how to handle some foods. It also led to increased costs in the operations of the company.
Opportunity 1: one of the opportunities for this company is the continual growth of demand for healthy food because of increased instances of obesity in the United States of America. Therefore the customers are looking for fat free foods which will keep them healthy and reduce fat related diseases. The company has high chances of increasing the market by taping into this market through the introduction of vegetable dip as well as diversifies into different geographical market segments(Datamonitor ,2009).
Opportunity 2: the company should also exploit the organic snacks market where the demand is also increasing at a higher rate. There is a growth in this market of the organic food therefore its up to the company to exploit this opportunity.
Opportunity 3: the world has never experienced the amount of wealth as it is experiencing today meaning that majority of the people in the world today are falling into middle class today and this leaves extra disposable income in the markets of consumers. Countries like China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Middle East countries are experiencing economic growth therefore the business of snacks will do well in those countries.
Opportunity 4: the company should also enter into vertical integration with suppliers of raw materials in order to efficiently and effectively manage their resources. This will be done through collaboration or entering into long term contracts of suppliers. This ineffective will improve the operations of the company(Datamonitor ,2009).
Threat 1: the main threat to this company is direct competition from other snack manufacturer such as craft foods, Unilever, and many others.
Threat 2: the production and distribution of food has many regulations as compared to production of any product apart from the regular licenses they must have licenses from regular foods and other healthy licensing bodies. The packaging of food is regulated and must meet some standards in order to ensure the food is safe within and outside the United States of America(Kerin and Peterson, 2007).
Threat 3: the industry is facing changes in consumer purchasing pattern. Of late because of increased pressure of work many people have chosen packed foods that is already cooked therefore this is potentially negative for packaging industry since the customers will be patronizing the hotel industry. This change by customers from the kitchen to the restaurant is one of the threats of success of this company(Datamonitor ,2009).
There are many competitors in this industry and these competitors include Smithfield foods, ConAgra foods incorporated, Kraft foods incorporated, Unilever and Cargill Incorporated. The Company upon entering the vegetable dip product into the market they should expect a stiff competition from competitors and this competition is meant to give the company grounds for growth. Apart from the mentioned companies, there are other food manufacturing companies from Europe Japan and other Asian companies where labor is cheap, making it difficult for this company to grow to those markets. There is an entry of products manufactured somewhere else into the US market and this makes it difficult for the company to continue growing and if they don’t take serious actions to improve the market (Armstrong G. & Kotler P. 2007).
Competitors offer challenges to business and ensure there is fair prices in the market for the benefit of the customers. The company planning to offer rival companies a challenge on capture there market driving some of them out of business. However the company has come up with structures that will enable them remain in business, this will include product differentiation and cost reduction strategies. We shall also use focusing strategies. We shall engage ourselves in various strategies to help us deal with our competitors. This will include diversification, outsourcing, and differentiation Mudie P & Cottam A, 1999) and Winer, R.S. 2007). We shall analyze possible competitor’s steps to ensure we remain competitive in the market. The possible steps that are likely to be taken by our competitors include possible product diversification, expanding product to various parts of the town, reducing costs due to outsourcing, investment in digital equipment and expanding product base(Kerin and Peterson, 2007).
Industry and trends analysis
There has been an upward trend in the industry up to 2004 however after 2004 some industry players started experience a downward trend upto 2004 where the economy was performing poorly. However from the statistics of 1985, there was growth in the sector where net sales grew at a higher rate as compared to what is happening currently. The growth of Frito lay was in all divisions where the company was operating and it experienced a growth in profitability(Datamonitor ,2009).
The target audience for the vegetable Dips includes;
a) People who want a healthy food menu:The Frito Lays Dips main objective is to provide a nutritious and healthy vegetable Dips for its consumers. With the growing culture to reduce obesity, more people are looking for foods that ensure and cater for that. The Frito Lays Dips is determined to make this happen and offer a one stop food where our consumers who are cutting weight and who want to maintain their ideal weight(Armstrong G. & Kotler P. 2007).
b) The shoppers at the various stores: The stores are great places where there are different activities e.g. there are shoppers, playing of video games, a meeting place. The vegetable Dips will be distributed in various stores for the shoppers who are looking for quick, wonderful and healthy snacks within the sores. Hence the vegetable Dips becomes a convenience snack for them, instead of them relocating to another places with all their shopping baggage (Datamonitor ,2009).
c) Local people within the town/city:This is a larger target audience; because many people working overtime and hence cooking a healthy meal become a huge task. To cut down the task of cooking the locals are able to buy healthy foods from stores. With the introduction of packed vegetable Dips to restaurants’; this will be a tremendous boost to it as more locals get it easy(Datamonitor ,2009).
d)Travelers:The people, who are traveling to other places and pass by stores buy food that is quick to consume. This target group is small, but also useful because it brings the extra sales (Kerin and Peterson, 2007).
These segments are:
Young people (5-16 years): This group consists of a large percentile of over 50% approximately of the whole market segment. Over the years, all the manufacturers and stores of snacks have been generating a high turnover of profit due to the high purchase by this segment. The young people enjoy and love to eat snacks, of different types and brands and hence they can never exhaust consuming snacks in the near future. Vegetable Dips has always been described as one snack where the young people get to live healthily.
People between 17-45 years: This will be the second category of the target market and consists of educated and creative men and women, with a conscience regarding environmental responsibility, a high regard for their personal health, and a love of the outdoors. They live in suburban bands around the nation’s cities, in apartments and condos, and are typically employed in white-collar settings. With annual earnings between $45,000 and $55,000, they can afford to pay a premium for better food. A secondary target market exists among health-conscious Baby Boomers. Challenged by doctors to change their eating habits, they seek alternatives to the conventional snacks.
People between ages 46-80: This is a segment that has largely been sidelined by many snack manufacturers. This target includes people who are autistic, diabetic, high/low blood pressure, heart disease etc. This target comprises of approximately 25% and are willing to purchase any healthy food e.g. vegetable Dip. A lot of studies and research that have been done, demonstrate that these category, respond positively to vegetable related foods.
This target market has potential for growth, because of the key reason of the company’s vegetable Dip, which will embarrass uniqueness and healthy standards. The more the purchase of the vegetable Dip, this will lead to its promotion through mouth-mouth advertisement due to the girls play-groups, pre school etc.
Market segmentation variables
Age: The size of various groups will affect the demand of some groups in vegetable. Youth groups demand different types of products as well as the aged. When entering international market the company will analyze and know the demographic segmentation in terms of each group so that they will know the amount of product that will be sold in that country. A country like china, the US, Canada will demand different qualities of products as compared to a country like Nigeria, Indonesia and India. This is because of the population set up of those countries. In these other countries there are many youths as compared to the U.S (Schaik J.L., 2002).
The size of the age groups for example 4-16 has an important bearing on the target market. This market base serves a three-fold purpose in the segmenting; decision-making and buying by parents on behalf of children, the influence of children on the purchasing decision of parents, spending habits by the youths themselves(Armstrong G. & Kotler P. 2007).
Sex: The sex groups male and female have different characteristics and have different demand for different products. Women with large disposable income will increase the demand for household appliances, food and other devices which are for women while men would demand things like cars, beer and other luxurious drinks. This is because women are associated with Families and it has been proved a woman with money is a family asset as compared to man. This behavior is also reflected in consumption. Therefore a company wishing to enter international market will be required to audit the market and know the ratio of men to women who have disposable income before introducing the product(Armstrong G. & Kotler P. 2007).
The target market is the both male and female sex, because they all want to live health.
Income: Consumption is to a large extent a function of disposable income. Thorough analysis of consumer income, income distributions and the manner in which consumer units appropriate their disposable income (expenditure patterns) is thus essential in any quantitative market study. Information on differences and trends in the distribution of income on a geographical basis and by ethnic group can be particularly valuable in the demarcation of regional market segments and target market segments. Income data on cities and parts of cities is also used for purposes of decision making on the location or branch stores and shopping centre(Schaik J.L., 2002).
Coupled with rapid rate of growth in the number of consumer units in the higher income brackets, spells a dramatic increase in free purchasing power. The level of discretionary income of any community is of special significance since it implies a growing market potential for durable consumer goods, some luxury goods and certain types of services. Information on the relationship between income and consumer expenditure on particular categories of goods and services is particularly useful for purposes of market segmentation. The research surveys of the bureau of the market research university of south Africa amongst urban and non –whites households and their proportional expenditure on certain categories of goods and services(Armstrong G. & Kotler P. 2007).
The large percentile of people is approximately 45% have an influence on the purchasing decisions of the parents, hence their income levels becomes a subjects of consideration. Depending on the income levels of the parents and other consumers will determine the fast movement of the vegetable Dip.
Lifestyle: The small percentile of people will be influenced to purchase the vegetable Dip because of their, lifestyle i.e. travelers which makes need packed food.
Cultural factors: The diversity of the target market will be addressed by the vegetable Dip, hence will enable the consumers from different backgrounds take the snack. Eventually influences the purchasing decision by the parents on under age people will part of culture(Schaik J.L., 2002).
There are many decision factors that we should consider when advising this company on the way to go whether to expand to international market or expand to the local market by improving on chips dip or introducing vegetable dip. One of the factors to consider is the saturation of the market at the moment, the other product have saturated the market and are looking for healthy foods such as organic snacks and vegetable snacks.
The other factor to consider in this case is the financial performance of each segment. From the excel data profit is focused to improve for the Mexican dips cheese dip, sour cream dip however, profit for this two products are estimated to go down by 100% as per the proforma profit and loss account. This means that the continued production will give the company negative results. For the results available it means that the company in order to breakeven they must be able to produce and distribute products which bring in more than the projected revenue of $ 109073359.
Plan development – SMART Plan
In order to achieve the organization goals and objectives the company should expand into international market through strategic alliances and enter into the market of the vegetable dip in the US. The company currently has a market for chip dip therefore the company will only exploit the existing markets by introducing the new product Vegetable dip. The current sales force will be used to market the product alongside the existing products. The first three months should be used to market the product then its success will be evaluated after one year. The first year the company should be able to breakeven thereafter expect an annual growth rate of 10% for the first three years and because of competition it should come down to 7%(Kotler P., 1989).
The first year in business will be developing the market for the new product and the second year the company will start making profit.
Product:Manufacture and retail a varieties of snacks and have just started generating a range of snacks of vegetable dip to complement the chip dip. The ingredients are sourced from traditional goods and everything used in their products is natural. Frito Lays Dips pride themselves on their unique and eccentric snacks, such as Baken Ets Fried Pork , skin, Cracklings, Corn Snacks, Fries, Crackers, Plantain Chips, Go Snacks, Maui Chips, Potato Crisps, Nuts and Seeds, Meat Sticks and Popcorn. They have a Strong brand names and distinctive packaging. This includes colourful muted primary colours in shades of blue, red, pink and green. This appears on all of their packaging and is incorporated into their brands(Datamonitor ,2009).
Price: Across the products such us Baken Ets Fried Pork , skin, Cracklings, Corn Snacks, Fries, Crackers, Plantain Chips, Go Snacks, Maui Chips, Potato Crisps, Nuts and Seeds, Meat Sticks and Popcorn the prices range from $1.50 to $5.The vegetable dip will be priced at a reasonable price for both the company to make profit and also to be attractive to the customers. Since this vegetable dip is a new concept in the market, the price will be set to ease the penetration of the product to the market. The retail price of the vegetable dip it will be at $5 large packet and a small packet $ 0.5. This price will accommodate the cost of production and other remaining set of price will be to accommodate the other expenses e.g. employee compensation, operation costs, marketing campaigns and the profit-margins added. This is also inclusive of the taxes which will be added to every order placed whether it will be mailed to the customer. Together with the price, the vegetable dip will have instruction on how consume(Datamonitor ,2009).
Place: Frito Lays Dips has main distribution retail stores across the world. It also distributes its products and merchandise through the website online shop.There are three main channels of distribution that the company will use for this product at beginning. Since there will be involvements of manufacturing one of the channels of distributions will be(Kotler P., 1989):
In this version, the retailers will distribute company’s vegetable dip as well display them. The customers will be able to place their orders, and then the manufacturing plant which will still be part of the company will make the product. To expand and ensure fast movements of the vegetable dip, the company will form a collaboration whereby the appointed store, will be able to display and sell the company’s merchandise and share of profits at a percentage that would be a win-win situation for both the retailer store and Frito Lays Dips Company. The estimated revenue that will be generated through this channel will be approximately 45% of the whole revenue.
Promotion: This is an important function of marketing which is charged with the task of informing the target customers about the unique and availability of vegetable dip, their unique benefits and features as well as the price and place at which the product will be available in the market place. The company will engage the use of the promotion mix which is(Schaik J.L., 2002):
- Advertising: This will include use of media such as outdoor poster, television that mainly has parties, catalogues, bus posters, billboards etc. The company will engage the services of an advertising agency to come-up with creative ways of targeting the market. There will also be the use of internet advertising, targeting the customer who’s the local stores don’t have vegetable dip and creation of a website product. The catalogue, poster, newspapers adverts, will engage the use of bright colors for example red, yellow etc so as to attract customers(Armstrong G. & Kotler P. 2007).
- Personal selling: This is the oral presentation in a conversation with one or more prospective purchase for the purpose of making sales. The company will have products in stores in the huge malls that have huge human traffic. The company will have already trained personnel who will attract the consumers to use the vegetable dip.
- Public relation: publicity: Since the company is engaging in building a healthy world, the company will engage the partnership with a local hospital promote health products.
- Sales promotion: This involves of the use of incentives to complete the push-pull promotional strategy of motivating the sales force. The company will engage the use of(Schaik J.L., 2002):
- Price-off offers. This will especially used in the product introductory phase, so as to attract the customer.
- Quantity-off offers. This will be used for parents who are purchasing more than two s. This is the offering more quantity of the same product at no extra cost.
- Use of coupons. This will be used after 3months of the product introduction to the market. The customer will be entitled to redeem a specific standard certificate for the vegetable dip or in part payments. This will encourage purchase of the vegetable dip, build loyalty.
- Discounts. This will push for more sales to trade, especially when the vegetable dip sales, start to decline.
- Point of purchase (pop). The company will use special display racks, banners, exhibits that will be placed in the retail store to support the sale of the brand, so as to attract the traffic of people at the retail store, remind the customers, encourage impulse buying and ensure additional visibility to the advertising campaign(Armstrong G. & Kotler P. 2007).
Evaluation of decision
- A number of items have been considered in making the decision which the company should follow. This include if the company expands into international market the company will enter into strategic alliances, carry out strategic alliances, enter into collaborations or use joint venture in those countries expanding to.
- Direct investment will require huge cash outflow which may require credit facilities from banking institutions or from other institutions and this may increase the financial risks of the company.
- Diversifying into vegetable dip will bring good product mix and product differentiation to the company and this will improve the reputation of the company. It is difficult to estimate the market reaction in the international arena for the company products especially in the growing market.
The new product will break even if the projected sales are attained. In order for vegetable dip to breakeven must makes sales of $ 296,849 in the first year, $ 446,996 in the second year and in the third year $ 670,100. However the units of production are adjusted 250,000 for 500gm, 200,000 for1kg 200,000 for 1kg 50,000units of 2kg and 30,000 units of 5kg then the breakeven will change to $ 379,400 in year 1, $ 670,479 for year2 and year 3 $ 1,104,420.other financial details is in the appendixes.
The company should enter into the international market as well as introduce the product vegetable dip into the local market. This is because the company has already established by the parent company Pepsi by the parent company
In consideration of all this, the company will be better off to go international because already in our country the market is saturated. This is after considering SWOT analysis and cost benefit analysis.
Armstrong G. & Kotler P. (2007). Consumer Markets: Influences on consumer behavior, Principles of Marketing.
Datamonitor (2009); Frito Lays inc. Company profile available www.datamonitor.com
Kerin and Peterson (2007); Strategic Marketing Problems: Cases and Comments, 11th ed., Pearson/Prentice Hall, 2007. ISBN 0131871528
Kotler P., 1989, marketing management; Analysis, planning, implementation and control, 6th Edition; Prentice-hall, India (NewDelhi)
Mudie P & Cottam A (1999) The management and marketing of services 2nd edition Butterworth Heinemann
Schaik J.L., (2002); The Task of Marketing Management; J.L. van Schaik (Pity) ltd
Winer, R.S. (2007). Marketing Management, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ.