Corporate Strategic Audit of Turkcell Company

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Current Situation

The company is largest in mobile and optical infrastructure in Turkey. It is listed both turkey stock exchange and New York stock exchange. It serves more than 33 million customers every day. Apart from mobile communication, the company offers optical infrastructure. The company also operates its own airlines. The paper exposes the supply chain strategies of one of the world renowned and successful warehousing and material handling companies.

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Current Performance

Strategic Posture

  • Mission: The Company has a mission statement of easing and enriching people’s lives by providing cheaper but technologically improved communication medium.
  • Objective: the company main objectives include (annual report, 1)
    • To grow in our core mobile communication business through increased use of voice and data,
    • To grow our existing international subsidiaries with a focus on long-term profitability,
    • To grow in the fixed broadband business by creating synergy among Turkcell Group companies
    • To grow in the area of mobility, internet and convergence through new business opportunities,
    • To grow in domestic and international markets through communications, technology and new business
    • To develop new service platforms that will enrich our relationship with our customers through our technical capabilities.”
  • Objectives: The company objectives are
    • To grow into international market in a period of five years and this is the main reason why they have been listed in New York Stock Exchange.
    • The company has also improved their optical fibre infrastructure. They are able to compete efficiently with the likes of Vodafone who are a market power house on Europe. However, of late the company appears to be losing subscribers due to entry of a third competitor in the market.
    • They have the ability to operate in the long run depends on attaining an acceptable level of profits. Strategically managed firms characteristically have a profit objective, usually expressed in earnings per share or return on equity.
    • Strategic managers constantly try to increase the productivity of their systems. Firms that can improve the input-output relationship normally increase profitability.
    • One measure of corporate success is relative dominance in the marketplace. Larger firms commonly establish and objective in terms of competitive position, often using total sales or market share as measures of their competitive position.
    • Employees value education and training, in part because they lead to increased compensation and job security. Providing such opportunities often increases productivity and decreases turnover.
    • Whether or not they are bound by union contracts, firms actively seek good employee relations. In fact, proactive steps in anticipation of employee needs and expectations are characteristics of strategic managers.
    • Firms must decide whether to lead or follow in the marketplace. Either approach can be successful, but each requires a different strategic posture. Therefore, many firms state an objective with regard to technological leadership.
    • Mangers recognize their responsibilities to their customers and to society at large. In fact, many firms seek to exceed government requirements.

Strategic Managers

Businesses usually are considered to be the spirit that drives economic welfare. Irrespective of their size, businesses boost the economy by way of offering employment, merchandise, and trade which in turn result in the success of the business and its owners. Possibly, the management gurus are the equivalents as perceived by the poets’ in the corporate arena. Business enterprises, is it public, private or family owned, are organs of the society in which they exist. Management, consecutively, is the organ of the business enterprise, and the same is believed to be responsible for creating a whole, which is greater than the sum of the parts – the 3Ms of Management, namely man, material and money. Management bears upon itself the responsibility of defining the mission of the business enterprise, make productive work by having effective workforce, and to manage the societal impacts and the social responsibilities of the business enterprise.

Management, according to him, is responsible for transforming the mission and purpose of the organizational existence into objectives in eight crucial management areas, namely marketing, ethics and social responsibility, financial resource, productivity, human resources, profit requirements, innovation and physical resources.

Most often a turnaround situation may demand an outsider to lead the company out of the mess. However, at times, all it may need is a change in leadership style instead of a change in the leadership. Leadership is as learnable as any form of other skill sets. Skills are a manifestation of the personality traits of a person. But, as widely accepted, human beings are exceptionally good at adapting their personality to suit the occasion. So, leadership skills being the output of personality traits, the traits can be varied to the required skills. Turkcell discovered this and have the in the board of directors the Colin J. Williams as the Chairman: he has vast experience and holds a masters degree from New York University and A PhD from university of Sweden. Other board members include Mehmet Bulent Ergin, Gülsün Nazlı Karamehmet Williams, Oleg Malis, Alexey Khudyakov, Tero Erkki Kivisaari and Karin Eliasson

In the top management they have Süreyya Ciliv as chief executive officer, Serkan Okandan who is – Chief Financial Officer while İlter Terzioğlu is Chief Network Operations Officer. Cenk Bayrakdar works as Chief Product and Service Management Officer, İlker Kuruöz is Chief Information and Communication Technologies Officer. The experienced Selen Kocabas is employed as Chief Business Support Officer while Consumer Business department is headed by Burak Sevilengül and Emre Sayın works as the head of Corporate Business affairs. Mr. Ekrem Yener is the Chief International Expansion Officer, Tayfun Çataltepe is Chief Corporate Strategy & Regulations Officer and Hulusi Acar was employeed as – Chief Consumer Sales Officer. The legal affairs of the company are handled by Ümit Akın who holds the title of Chief Legal Affairs Officer

External Environment

People are dependent on the external environment in their daily lives. The term environment is usually associated with essential basic components and necessities of life, including the air humans breathe the water and food available for consumption and sustainment of life and the social and educational infrastructure of the local community or national society. However, in the context of business the term environment is linked to the combination of internal and external forces that influence the course of the development of an organization, including for example political and environmental conditions, cultural contexts and their influence, religious or legal systems. These external forces should be therefore fully comprehended by the managers in order to effectively predict and successfully deal with their impacts, whether positive or negative. In the last case scenario, strategic management that incorporates a full awareness of the external forces can consequentially reduce the severity of the impacts on the organization. In other words, it is essential to be continuously up to date in the process of identifying, evaluating and reacting to the outside world.

External forces are not by necessity unpredictable, as the general trend holds. They lay outside the control of companies, but with the help of efficient research and analysis, important factors of influential significance on the success of the strategies can be to a large extent predicted. The effects of these forces or factors on the international market are at first sight more clear cut and definable.

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Natural Environment

There is a lot of debate on the sustainability of the environment when it comes to tourism. Turkcell uses corporate social responsibility to keep the environment clean.

Social Environment

The different segments in the micro environment are then incorporated into the external environment and marketing that is used within the corporation for better responses. This is inclusive of both the PEST analysis as well as the marketing mix which is used with the corporation.

  • Political: The legalities that are incorporated into the industry are based on the several complexities and strategies that are available through the Internet. The political affiliations that are defined at this level include different processes and procedures that are used industry players. Political characteristics can render an organization’s strategies ineffective. As a result, there is almost always a need for adaptability and otherwise unquestionably accepted methodologies need to be considered and changed at times. This happens because political characteristics, regulation and rules form the roots of several business processes that are taking place in a region and since rules and regulations vary from region to region, the differences between business processes creates the potential for conflict. The complexity of this comes from heightened regulations in different territories, specifically because of protective measures now used with communication in different regions. The political associations are incorporative of Turkcell working with different customers to define the product, while promoting the correct legalities through the use of the communication of airwaves.

Social Environment

  • Economical: The rising changes in the communication industry are incorporating different regulations which have to be met. Today, low cost communication is one of the main trends in the economy, specifically because of the recession and different responses to this, as well as the complexities with mobile communication being able to continue to move forward with the demand in industry. Turkcell has incorporated different types of services that meet various customers’ needs, including low tariffs for holidays. There are also other deals, coupons and saving measures used by customers, specifically that are based on promotion of different products at specific times of the year. For instance, promotions for Christmas by allowing for specific rates to be available at lower cost, all which create an increase in demand among consumers at period.
  • Social: The social dimension of communication behavior is another aspect that Turkcell is using in offering services. It is known that there are specific trends which occur among subscribers and define the way in which communicate. While western societies are significantly open and recommend open communication, Turkey tends to follow a social hierarchy that gives relevance to individuals in accordance with different demographic attributes. One of the most significant challenges that the business shall face will come from the difference in language between the management and the consumers. Language is a key part of the social infrastructure and is one of the few areas that is frequently taken for granted but eventually goes on to become one of the most influential factors in the success/failure of the business’s campaign. The significance of language is reflected in the example that while a correctly worded campaign may do little more than give potential consumers information about the business, a poorly worded campaign can be expected to cause the business to lose consumers without a doubt. This is because of the fact that even the most of mistakes that are made in this area can result in the development of circumstances in which the consumer loses confidence in the business.
  • Technological: The last component that is known to affect the popularity of Turkcell is from the technological aspects that are associated with this. The success of Turkcell is reliant on building a brand image that is marketed through different pieces of technology. The emergence of the optical infrastructure to mobile companies has created a specific competition which Turkcell takes advantage of for better responses from customers. The economy has allowed the Turkey to benefit from the latest technological developments. As a result, businesses such as those that require an analysis and study of the market and market trends are able to conduct their operations efficiently and effectively.

Five Forces Model

Another way in which Turkcell can be analyzed is through Porter’s five forces model. The specific theory linked to this is based on the practices from the industry to the way in which this affects the external environment, as seen in figure 2.

Five Force Analysis
Figure 2: Five Force Analysis. (Hill, Jones, 7: 2007).

The bargaining power of customers is the first aspect to consider. Turkcell builds the brands based on the market analysis and the trends which are associated with this. The advantage that is a part of the business is based on the ability for customers to work with companies to create services and to find the best solutions for customer needs. However, this bargaining power can lead to lower prices that are not conducive to the business needs, specifically because of the need for Turkcell to remain ahead of other competitors who may offer the lower prices or places.

The threat of new entrants is one of the current changes which are affecting Turkcell, specifically with the rise of the technology. The technology has allowed several companies to begin different products that are able to provide the lowest prices and specific charges to customers. However, Turkcell’s brand name that is recognized internationally, affiliate companies with new entrants and the capacity to combine forces through the optical fibre have provided several advantages with the competition.

The threat of substitute products is the third force which may affect the company. Many mobile service providers are emerging and wireless and internet usages is growing. Turkcell uses this to their advantage by offering products as a part of the substitute packages while affiliating with different companies that may offer the communication alternatives.

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The bargaining power of suppliers is another aspect which is associated with this. The advantage that Turkcell has is based on the separate products with the optical fibre infrastructure.

The competitive rivalry within the mobile industry is one that is continuing to grow. For Turkcell to remain as a top company in the industry there is the need to meet the requirements and demands with technology and innovative packages that are offered to consumers while promoting the different products within the industry.

Internal Environment

Corporate Resource

Strategic capability, according to Johnson, Scholes and Whittington (95), is defined as ‘The resources and competencies of an organization required for it to survive and succeed.’

As seen in Table below, tangible resources represent the physical aspect of the organization like plant, its people and finance, while intangible resources constituting non-physical aspects include, information, reputation and knowledge.

Table showing the foundation of Turkcell Strategic Capability

Resources Competencies
Threshold Capabilities Threshold Resources
Turkcell is located in one of economically and politically stable country.
Threshold Competencies
With a global image, Turkcellhas been able to build a brand image of a reliable company.
Capabilities for Competitive Advantage Unique Resources

Positive HR policies targeting retention and performance-based rewards for employees

Divest parts of their organization to minimize debts and increase credit ratings.

Core Competencies
By pursuing a positive stance in employee-centric policies, the organization has been able to improve customer services.

Human Resource

Turkcell pursues a strong employee-centric retention and reward programme. These initiatives build a sense of security among the employees, and when they are rewarded for their hard and quality work, it lifts their morale and motivates them to perform much better. However, the company can do better with a stronger training and induction programme which can help the organization present a more professional outlook.

It is no secret that one’s work environment influences their attitude and the better the work environment, the more will it instigate positive work. Looking at Turkcell, it can be said that despite the pressure to maintain quality, HR policies are supportive of their employees needs and offer flexible working hours. In order to enhance quality services, an organization can develop better leadership styles and introduce teamwork. Though there are no references to Turkcell’s induction or training programmes, it can be safely said that the resort has these programmes in place for new inductees.

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Marketing

Turkcell’ marketing strategies will address the weaknesses of and threats to the company, while enhancing its strengths and opportunities. Hence, the first thing that the company will do was to boost prospective customers’ confidence in the company’s brands. This was achieved through extensive marketing campaigns geared towards its target market using the 4P’s of marketing:

Services will have wider choices, to appeal to all people.

Pricing was more flexible, to be able to compete with independent Vodafone that have a strong regional presence. Pricing should also be strategized to make it more attractive to corporate, who were willing to use their services

Promotions were custom-made to capture the company’s target market. Trendy services were promoted, while network clarity was a feature of promotional activities for the professional crowd.

Finance

On the basis of ratios analysis profitability ratios have shown upward trend but there is a marginal growth in gross profit from year before last year to last year. Though the operating profit has increased from 15% to 20.61% showing a growth of 5.6% this has become possible because of decrease in operating expenses. Management has been able to keep the operating expenses low – means the efficiency has increased. Operating expenses ratio has also come down which suggests that operating costs are under control.

So I have analyzed the both long term as well short term liquidity ratios and observed that the company has very tight liquidity position so far as short term liquidity ratios are concerned. As has been reflected by the current ratio that though company has liquidity to the extent of 1.13 for 1 liability but it is at decreasing trend.

In case of Long Term liquidity whereas company’s debt equity ratio is just reverse in the previous year i.e. 1:1.91 while the ideal debt should comprise 2:1 ,i.e. for every 1 unit of equity company should twice trade on debt. The long term debt component slightly improved last year from 1:1.91 to 1:1.363 but it is not sufficient to gain or say trade on equity. Management has to think about some long term debt like debentures if bank finance is not available and have to keep cost of debts reasonably less so that the profit available to proprietary after meeting financing cost is kept genuinely.

R&D

The Company strong R&D stemmed from its focus on innovation. The company develops services to fit customer needs. They allocate huge amount to R&D.

Analysis of Strategic Factors

Turkcell’s workflow automation capabilities of the Customer Care Management solution have enabled the company to manage the phone calls and relationships with its customers more efficiently and professionally. The sales agents are also automatically connected to the customers and prospects based on product and service expertise, named account, availability and even geography. Rogers & Peppers (160) cited that customer service agents can use the automation and customer relationship management solution to check the status of calling subscribers, request or inform him or her of the status of the request. The use of such technology has enabled the company to build customer relationship management that synchronizes and organizes all the business processes. Through this, the company attracts and wins new clients while nurturing, protecting and retaining what the company already has. This strategy enables the company to build lasting relationships with the customers and enhance a Customer Care Relationships (Rogers & Peppers, 161).

Turkcell’s Customer Management System involves three phases. The acquisition phase involves development and launching of new business procedures that attract new relationships with customers through different tools and services. The adding of incentives of different sorts provides customers with their needs conveniently. The focus on convenience in customer service is retention strategy that Turkcell has continued to employ in its Customer Relationship Management approach (Barnes 115-16). The reward system developed in effort to motivate and retain active and consistent customers has built the confidence of the subscribers leading to a maintained relationship with the customers.

Turkcell aimed at minimizing customer churn rates and to deliver better service to existing customers while at the same time recruiting new subscribers. This was achieved through the introduction of a streamlined approach to call logging and problem management while simultaneously launching a campaign management system that improves its ability to acquire new customers (Batterley, 164-165).

The understanding of the customer preferences enables a company or organization to build cohesive relationships with its clients. After Turkcell got a clear picture of the attitudes and the preference of its customers, it was able to build relationships with its subscribers by synchronizing and coordinating all customer interactions across different channels. These included such channels as telephone, e-mail, face to face, mail and fax. This new system helped to improve customer service, increased productivity and maximize revenues.

Customers often purchase services and products from a company or an organization because of the developed relationship between the company or organization and the clients. In most cases the relationship may be a result of previous experience with the products of the company or the probably the client was referred to the company by a friend or associate. The focus of marketing of the products and the services of a company is to please existing customers. In Turkcell, the priority is given to customer satisfaction index. The products and the services that are offered are therefore designed with the target of meeting the fluctuating demands of the customers. When Turkcell launched its new marketing strategy, the aim was promotion of customer service rights. The focus was therefore generally provision of the customers with the right products at the right time and location. In this launched strategy, the primary goal was to establish strong communication and connection Turkcell network that can enable the customers to make on-net and off-net connection and communication.

Customers are quick in detecting any little indifference and insincerity and as a result maintenance of close relationships with the clients is of great importance and priority. The ability to maintain long-term client and customer relationship and loyalty at Turkcell remains a strong and long-term challenge. Turkcell’s customer relationship is based on the principle that every business needs to constantly and consistently capture new customers. The main focus of companies was to continually and consistently nurture and retain their customers. This decision is based on the understanding of the reality and the fact that the cost of attracting new customers is most often twice the cost incurred in the retention and nurturing of the present clients and customers. Customer satisfaction thus forms the foundation of customer relationship management. Servicing consistently at Turkcell is the strength that the company has relied on in its marketing strategies. Therefore, interaction with the customers is done in a consistent way to a level that the business exceeds customers’ satisfaction.

With consistency and pleasing of customers, Turkcell has achieved customer retention target since most of the subscribers remain for long time as clients to the telecommunication company. This customer retention achievement translates into increased revenue. This is due to the fact that customer relationship management results into shorter sales cycles due to efficient management of accounts and orders by the Turkcell financial management systems and personnel. This strategy has spurred business growth and the expansion of the company leading to enhanced long-term profitability since the number of subscribers continues to increase and the business opportunities are thus maximized.

Turkcell’s customer relationship management strategy was effectively implemented. This has led to increased satisfaction of the subscribers and profitability. Customer relationship management strategy is considered worthwhile and a smart solution that has continued to keep Turkcell competitive and above its key competitors and business rivals. To the top management of Turkcell Telecommunication Company, customer relationship management system provides crucial information and data such as customer satisfaction and efficiency of service. Effective customer relationships results into mutual link with the customer that allows the company to get feedback from the customers on their satisfaction with the products and the services offered by the company. Based on this feedback the company management can make strategic decisions aimed at increasing customer satisfaction, relationship, and retention of customers. As subscribers got more satisfied and confident in their relationship with the products and the service offered by Turkcell, they continued to subscribe to the network and the services.

As relationships with customers develop, there is greater mutual understanding and collaboration. At Turkcell, this kind of relationship by itself was able to produce efficiencies that reduced the operating costs of the company thus enhancing and increasing its profitability. Further, satisfaction of customers through enhanced customer relationships has resulted into reduced cost of acquiring new customers since the satisfied clients often recommend the company to potential customers and subscribers (Raab, 57).

Critical Success Factors

For Turkcell to continue moving forward there is the need to continue with specific factors to success, as seen in table

Critical Success Factor Reason
Organizational structure Use of teamwork and sectors for emphasis on customer support
Legalities Ability to meet current changes in the industry
Technology Meeting and outgrowing the competition with available technology, such as the Internet
Social trends Providing different tariff for different social expectations
Pricing Competitive pricing because of the ability to change through the internal structure
Promotions Use of technology and specialized deals to match social trends

Situational Analysis

SWOT Analysis

  • Strengths: Turkcell has multiple competitive strengths, evidencing that it is well positioned to seize market opportunities, and aim to target certain market segments in the communication sector. Among its strengths are:
    • A proportional ratio of growth and defensive markets;
    • Top market position;
    • Distinguished brands that are recognized nationally and have wide appeal;
    • A broad range of store portfolio that will be difficult to match, much more surpass;
    • Solid history of growth in terms of earnings and cash generation; and
    • Powerful bargaining position with its suppliers
  • Weaknesses: Despite the fact that the company has numerous strong points, it also has some weaknesses:
    • It has a strong national presence and reputation, but a weak regional recognition;
    • Narrow price range. Vodafone has goods the prices.
    • Its cash flow is not from only mobile communication of the company alone, but is consolidated with its fiber optic infrastructure services and ;
    • Has no strategy in place to deal with Vodafone a competitor with strong customer loyalty; and
  • Opportunities: Profitability looks good for Tukcell because of the opportunities that are available to the company:
    • Government incentives;
    • Increasing subscription by entering international market;
    • Public awareness about environmental and health issues;
    • Entry into African market
    • Higher demand of fiber optic infrastructure services.
  • Threats
    • Weak economic forecast for the economy in Turkey;
    • Increasing competition;

SWOT Matrix

STRENGTHS WEAKNESSES
– Proportional ratio of growth and defensive markets – Strong national presence but weak regional presence
– Top market position – Narrow price range
– Distinguished brands – Cash flow is consolidated with other products
– Broad range of services and products – No strategy to deal with independent competitors
– Solid history of earnings and cash generation
– Powerful bargaining position with suppliers
OPPORTUNITIES THREATS
– Government incentives – Weak economic forecast for Turkey.
– Increasing subscription – Increasing preference for fiber optic infrastructure from mobile companies.
– Public awareness about environmental health issues – competitors have loyal customer base
– Decreased consumer spending is forecast
– Higher demand of fiber optic infrastructure

Recommended Strategy

There are some possible strategies that Turkcell can implement. To determine, the best corporate level strategies, it would be proper to refer to Michael Porter’s Three Generic Strategies of Differentiation, Cost Leadership, and Focus. Under the prevailing economic environment and given the company’s strengths and weakness, the most appropriate strategies for Turkcell are the ones that will allow it to derive immense customer loyalty and these could be accomplished through differentiation and cost leadership. Differentiation requires Turkcell to develop products and services superior to the competition and that customers truly want. Consequently, cost leadership requires that Turkcell undertake efficient production and operational practices. Thus, possible strategies, three alternative strategies were chosen namely:

  1. develop new products and services,
  2. apply new production techniques, and
  3. strengthen ties with clients.

The second most appropriate strategy to undertake is developing new products and services, while the third most compelling strategy to initiate is strengthening ties with subscribers.

Implementation

Strategic management is not only about formulating strategies to correspond with the external environment’s demands, trends and needs. These strategies need to follow a certain plan to ensure the alignment of evolving strategies with the organizations’ past tactics. Extreme change is after all undesirable and can be unsettling, impacting the work environment negatively as a result. Internal management is also of great significance in the success of businesses and thus should be paid particular attention to. This attentiveness is how the leaders of an organization can build a solid foundational structure of the business that is further enhanced by the combined efforts of the carefully selected work force. When hiring employees it is of the essence to ensure that that their individual contribution will be a valuable element in pushing the progress further rather than remaining stagnant, or worse, or causing losses.

It is self-evident that the internal changes in an organization can be made in the aftermath of an internal analysis. A manager can take actions such as addressing weaknesses in employees conduct or hiring more workers if that is deemed necessary to bring about the required and desired progress. Strategic internal management decisions are not necessarily co-dependent on the macro environment as the changes are directly implemented by the leadership in the organization. However, the influences or trends in the external environment might necessitate these changes. Change management can be thus also a necessity to keep productivity high and ensure continued success that corresponds with the external environment’s factors.

Change management is however more complicated than one expects at first sight. It is on the one hand an unavoidable aspect of the contemporary work environments considering the necessity to adapt to the evolving world as has been noted. New technology is introduced on a continuous basis, organizational structuring is deemed essential to avoid charges of bureaucracy, group cliques, corruption and abuse of privileges of power are a few of the noted and common problems of organizations. Any corporation that does not correspond to these weaknesses in the context of a world market where fierce competition and continuous change reigns as the norm, is doomed. Therefore, even if the macro environment is not at directly involved in instigating the change internally, it is nevertheless a major contributing factor.

Business and human resources are interlinked in forming capabilities that improve and enhance customer relationships. Technology and complementary resources in addition to the company’s adjustment and integration of customer orientation approaches in its mission statement and objectives have a generally positive link with the development of durable and continuous customer relationships. This recent and proven to be successful approach in dealing with customers, the customer-linked capability, is also observed in the study to have a positive effect on the relationships between the employees and the customers and increases customer satisfaction in noticeable ways.

For instance, the influences created in the market by brand preferences in contexts where the private label share is growing such as Taiwan’s which makes it particularly complicated for other brands to compete since consumers in this market tend to make purchase decisions based on familiarity with the product or the label. From an external perspective, companies can adopt aggressive marketing strategies to promote their products. However, what is remarkable to note is the role of employees of the organization in these campaign. The impact can be either beneficial or negative depending on the communication of the employees’ role and their corresponding satisfaction with it. As demonstrated by Parkinson et al. employees and employers share often different perspectives about corporate performance. The differences in perspective can lead to a strain in communication between the two sides and damage the organizational development. This is how integral internal strategic marketing, in response to the external environmental forces, is indeed. Yet, careful awareness should be also provided to the understanding of the internal environment, including the employees’ perspectives with regard to the introduced change in order to avoid conflict and a far less productive work sphere,

However, while an organization has influence on internal forces and can direct it, it has no power over governmental or market changes. The formulation of a strategy in this context can thus seem pointless and heavy. However, as mentioned, formulating strategies in this perspective empowers an organization with the ability to quickly change and adapt to the external environment’s surprises; a factor that can indeed make all the difference. A few of the points noted by the author in this perspective concern for example methods through which to prevent panic when faced with the reality of dramatic and not necessarily positive change. Panic can further obstruct any chance of recovery and should be treated in advance by preparing employees for the possibility that something alike can happen at any moment in this uncertain world market. In advocacy of the need for internal management change, particular emphasis can be then placed on the significance of action versus inaction and internal stagnancy Simply put, this author believes in this book that the advantages of active participation are numerous and undeniable for the future sustainability of the organization. Yet, he also warned of the dangers of too much planning and advised managers on the other hand to learn to adapt, change, evolve and grow rather than follow a static and strict plan in an environment that is anything but constant, linear and stagnant. Organizations have to learn that things cannot be under control. However, this is no call to hopelessness and surrender as the possibilities of success despite the complications noted so far are great. It is also no call for an excessive managerial approach. Organizations have to learn according to the author to let go and balance things.

Evaluation and Control

As has become clear so far, even if the external environment is so powerful, uncontrollable and often unpredictable and regardless of the fierce competition and the uncertainty of the world market at times, companies cannot remain passive along the lines if they desire to continue as prosperous organizations in the business world. In fact, the contrary of this is rather true. The reality that both the external environment and the markets are so complicated is a motivation rather than a deterrent. To be more precise, while it is true that the forces of the external environment might be outside of the control of organizations, as has been also demonstrated; aggressive marketing and strategic planning from businesses can be influential in laying a role on the structure of the market nevertheless. Take the aforementioned example of labels’ importance in countries like Taiwan. Locating places as Taiwan can be done through the foreign investment direct strategies which analyze and calculate what type of market a company is ready or should rather serve. This is done through a specific strategy that analyzes the economic environment and empowers businesses to construct future plans aimed at increasing the possibilities of success and continuity.

Works Cited

Barnes, James. Build your customer strategy: a guide to creating profitable customer relationships. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, 2006.

Batterley, Richard. Leading through relationship marketing: how winning organizations leverage stakeholder relationships to improve business performance. Sydney: McGraw-Hill Companies, 2004.

Hill, Charles & Gareth, Jones. Strategic Management: An Integrated Approach. New York: Houghton Mifflin, 2007.

Johnson, Gerry, Scholes, Kevin and Whittington, Richard. Exploring Corporate Strategies: Text and Case. New Delhi: Prentice Hall, 2008.

Raab, Gerhard. Customer relationship management: a global perspective. New York: Aldershop, Gower, 2008.

Rogers, Martha & Peppers Don. Managing customer relationships: a strategic framework, Hoboken: John Wiley. 2004.

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